Anne Juliana Gonzaga became a Servant of Mary following the death of her husband, Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria in 1595, after receiving a vision of the Madonna, to whom her parents had prayed to cure her of a childhood illness? About 1830 the canoness, Charlotte von Lasperg, discovered a rolled manuscript map on a shelf in a wet and windowless storeroom where liturgical utensils dating from before the Reformation, and no longer used, were kept. The map today exists only in a post-war reconstruction based on various 19th and early 20th century reproductions of it. There was text around the map, which included descriptions of animals, the creation of the world, definitions of terms, and a sketch of the more common sort of T and O map with an explanation of how the world is divided into three parts.
The sources drawn upon by the cartographer are varied and cover a considerable span of time. In addition to the classical and religious sources, the author also shows familiarity with some writings current in his time, such as Johannes of Wurzburg (ca. The major design feature upon which the Ebstorf map is based is the classic T-O scheme (see #205), but with elaborate additions of both a fabulist and religious nature.
Slightly lower down and to the west the map-maker has placed the country of the Amazons, guarded by two doughtily armed queens.
Still further westwards, under Christa€™s right hand, stand the flaming altars of Alexander which mark the northern extremity of the world as it was known to the ancients.
Wilma George describes, in what she labels the Oriental Region, the array of zoological information to be found on this pictorial encyclopedia.
The map shows a few fish in the eastern part of the circumfluent ocean, and an image of a huge sea serpent eating a stag just northeast of Paradise (see the first figure above).
AFRICA: This continent is depicted as little more than a segment of a circle, its north and west coasts extending in an almost straight line from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic, while its south and east coasts describe a shallow curve. Approaching the eastern tip of the continent, the Nile disappears into the sand; but it emerges to flow in the opposite direction through Egypt, first skirting the region of MeroA« (inhabited by dwarfs who ride on crocodiles). EUROPE: On this more familiar continent, there are none of the mythical and monstrous figures that are seen in the more remote regions of Africa and Asia. Some scholars, such as Beazley, dismiss this map as merely a gross exaggeration of the already unscientific medieval cartography. Curiously enough, one must consider that, like many of the other significant maps and texts of the so-called Dark Ages, the Ebstorf map serves also as an aid to our understanding of the period of great discoveries which began some two centuries after its completion. What has divided scholarly opinion has not been so much the place of origin of the Ebstorf mappamundi as its date and the authorship. It was, then, to satisfy hungry minds and thirsty ears with reliable information [oculata fide] that we appended this summary of the natural order and situation of the provinces, as they are distributed through the three parts of the world, so adding to the accuracy of our picture; for we are aware that the very variety of painters has resulted in the production of pictures which depart from the truth of the localities themselves - those pictures which are commonly called mappaemundi - since very often the painter, like any kind of witness mars by the falsity of a part the whole formulation of his evidence, when he adds material of his own .
On the whole, book illustrations tend to be well preserved and to survive, yet not one of the thirty known manuscripts of Gervasea€™s Otia imperialia contains a map.
According to Armin Wolf, underlying both Gervasea€™s Otia imperialia and the Ebstorf map is the ancient Greek theory of microcosm and macrocosm, according to which each human being embodied the world, while the world took the form of a gigantic man. Bagrow, Leo, History of Cartography, Plate XXII (Gog and Magog confined by Alexander the Great, feasting human flesh and drinking blood; The Garden of Paradise with Adam and Eve), Plate XXIII (Lower Saxony, showing the region where the map was made).
SchnelbA¶gl, Fritz, Dokumente zur NA?rnberger Kartographie (NA?rnberg: Selbstverlag der Stadtbibliothek, 1966), 45 (German lands, Francia orientalis).
Delumeau, Jean, History of Paradise: The Garden of Eden in Myth and Tradition, University of Illinois Press, 2000, 288 pp. Dumrese, Hans, EinfA?hrung in die Betrachtung der Ebstorfer Weltkarte (LA?neburg: Peters, 1954). Hoogvliet, M., a€?The Mystery of the Makers, Did Nuns Make the Ebstorf Map?a€?, Mercatora€™s World, Volume 1, Number 6, pp.
Ohnsorge, W., a€?Zur Datierung der Ebstorfer Weltkarte,a€? Niedersaechsisches Jahrbuch fA?r Landesgeschicgte 13 (1961), 158-185. Ruge, Walter, a€?Alteres kartographisches Material in deutschen Bibliotheken,a€? Nachrichten der K. SchnelbA¶gl, Fritz, Dokumente zur NA?rnberger Kartographie (NA?rnberg: Selbstverlag der Stadtbibliothek, 1966), 44.
Staszewski, J., a€?Polska i Baltyk na mapie swiata z Ebsdorfua€? [Poland and the Baltic Sea on the Mappa Mundi of Ensdorf], Zeszyty Geograficzne Wyzszej Szkoly Pedagogicznej w Gdansku 4 (1962).
Uhden, Richard, a€?Die A¤ltesten Verfahren der Erdkreisteilung,a€? Petermanns Mitteilungen, 1930, 126. Uhden, Richard, a€?Zur Herkunft und Systematik der mittelalterlichen Weltkarten,a€? Geographishe Zeitschrift.
Woodward, David, a€?Reality, Symbolism, Time, and Space in Medieval World Maps,a€? Annals of the Association of American Geographers 75 (1985), pp. It is a kind of truism that the past comes to us through some combination of testimony (oral or written), images, written documents, and artifacts. At the outset I should say that I favor the rectangle, and admit freely that for the most part we really haven't the faintest idea of what happened in the past, whether it was five minutes ago, a century ago, or a millennium ago. For this reason, I'd like to use an urban metaphor suggesting how we might approach the past. Let us narrow down our questions about the past to just a few, in this case, and see whether we can find out what the camp was like at the time of these transports, when people found out about them; whether they knew what was waiting for them at the end of the line and how they might have responded to that knowledge. The goal of this essay is to see what happens when we try to use the manuscript of a musical composition as a document that might contribute to the process of trying to answer our questions. As a historical document, the Trio poses many of the same questions as any other shred of the past: Is it genuine? The second movement of the Trio, on the other hand, gives us information of other, different kinds.
The answer in this regard is yes, and we may begin by dividing our information into material that uses letters and numbers, and thus corresponds to our normal sense of factual information, and other kinds that come to us via musical notation.
Before we consider these different kinds of material, let us return for a moment to the Trio and its likely dates of composition. That level of certainty, however, stops precisely where we would crave additional information.
So if we are going to suggest that the text of the song is an important part of the document, we are on fairly solid ground if we stick to the first verse. If the words at the beginning of the inner movement lead to a particular Moravian song that supplies musical and textual parameters, the symbolic notation at its conclusion provides another combination of straightforward information and vexing questions. Does this moment in the composition tell us anything that helps us to answer our questions about Terezín and its transports? Taken together, and considering possible sources, we are drawn immediately to the first song of Mahler's Kindertotenlieder.
Putting it all together—the song text, the allusions to other works, the expressive codes--we may decide that the variations movement is filled with images of death.
Again, if we take the dates at face value, we conclude that the third movement was probably started after September 21. The other anomalous passage is located in the final movement, which, again according to the manuscript, was written when the transports were already underway. These two passages suggest another possible reading of the piece that not only fits in with events but may even say something about the composer's response to them.
Although it is possible that for purely aesthetic or musical reasons Klein wished to anticipate his final variations within the context of the opening movement, it is considerably more likely that this passage was inserted into the first movement after the second movement was completed. Mary Beth LaRue, who will lead YJ’s upcoming Yoga for Creativity course, is here to help you breathe inspiration and bliss into your daily practice and your teaching. Senior AcroYoga teacher Deven Sisler and yoga teacher Britta Rael demonstrate 5 ways that hands-on assists can enhance the Savasana experience. Since filtering what we share on social media has become the norm, Bad Yogi Erin Motz offered to take us behind the scenes of her Instagram account.


Yoga teacher and licensed psychotherapist Ashley Turner says yoga is the key to psychological and emotional healing as well as resolving issues with self-confidence, relationships, and more. Common yoga cues intended to protect the knee during practice focus on the quadriceps, but Ray Long, MD, says they’re missing some other key muscles. When it comes to yoga and meditation in the West, Hindu mythology can often be polarizing among practitioners. Yoga Journal advertising coordinator Elizabeth Regan takes a life-changing trip to a cadaver lab, where her discovery of the body’s interior fosters growth in both mind and spirit.
Art of Teaching Yoga mentor Giselle Mari explains why networking is so important for yoga teachers. Yoga Journal digital producer Samantha Trueheart shares how yoga teacher training helped her overcome a lifelong fear and open up her throat chakra. As an average 29 year old male with no spiritual background and no religious affiliation, I went into the 10 day retreat curious but also fairly skeptical.
I had decided to do the course on a whim, figuring that it would be a slightly weird and interesting experience. Vipassana is meant to be a method of progressively teaching your brain increased focus, self awareness and control. The first step was learning to develop our faculty of attention through focusing on our natural breathing.
I found myself standing in the bush at the end of day one, overwhelmed, tears forming, with no idea why I was so upset. The second step is to use your newfound focus to progressively become aware of your body sensations. I will leave the rest as a surprise, because the second part of the course is something that doesn’t lend itself well to pre-framing.
Overall, I found the retreat to be more of a personal development course than it was a hippie meditation camp. While the 10 days were without a doubt the most challenging I have faced in recent times, they were also the most rewarding. Garrick Transell is the founder and head writer at Hidden Social Language. Formerly of the health and fitness industry, Garrick founded the Hidden Social Language as a way to bridge the gap, and improve understanding, between men and women.
In 1888 the map was restored at the Kupferstichkabinett in Berlin, and the 30 goatskins on which the map was painted were taken apart.
Photographs taken at the time of the 1888 restoration have not survived, but Ernst Sommerbrodt reproduced them in 1891 as an atlas of collotypes (Lichtdruck), half the size of the original (the volume measures 48 by 64 centimeters and contains 25 collotype plates).
It may possibly have been used as an altar piece at one time, a€?no doubt intended both for instruction and for pious meditation upon the endless miracles wrought by Goda€?. Can this depiction be attributed to Adam of Bremena€™s reference to Finland as a terram feminarum - the land of the women?
According to Van Duzer, this sea serpent derives from Honorius Augustodunensis, Imago mundi 1.12, who mentions huge serpents in India that can eat stags and swim across the ocean.
Not only are the rivers Elbe and Weser shown, but also included are their smaller tributaries, the Ilmenau, the Leine with its tributary the Innerste, the Aller with the Oker and even the tiny Gosea€”all correctly ordered. Gervasea€™s book not only contains a description of the whole earth (tocius orbis descriptio), but also, and most importantly in the present context, it appears to have been the latest work of all those used in the compilation of the Ebstorf map. This seems to imply that the map was no miniature within the book, but a separate map accompanying it.
Raymond, a€?New light on some medieval maps,a€? The Geographical Journal, London, XV (1900), pp.
RA¶mische Reisewege an der Hand der Tabula Peutingeriana (Stuttgart: Strechker und SchrA¶der, 1916), XXXVIII. Miller, Die Ebstorfkarte] Petermanns Mitteilungen, Gotha, XLVI (1900), Literaturbericht, pp. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu GA¶ttingen, Philologisch-historische Klasse, GA¶ttingen, 1904, Heft I, 3. The arguments for Gervase of Tilburya€™s being the mapmaker are based on the name a€?Gervasea€?, which was an uncommon name in Northern Germany at the time, and on some similarities between the world views of the mapmaker and Gervase of Tilbury. Gog and Magog are shown on the Ebstorf map as cannibals; they are pictured in the midst of a northeastern area walled-off by mountains through which a passage, named Porte Caspie, leads.
Noah's Ark is shown perched on top of the twin peaks of Ararat and Noah is depicted with open arms welcoming the white dove, which has returned with an olive branch in its beak. The impressions of the world, therefore, recorded by the scientific attitude of Ptolemy and those in the Ebstorf map, both lie, though at different depths, in the twilight zone between experience and dream.
But first, we should ask whether other aspects of the score suggest that a hidden message is concealed within. The first one begins at Bar 67 of the first movement, which, according to the manuscript, was completed well before there was any knowledge of the forthcoming transports. As usual, there is no definitive answer, but the anomaly of the expressive instructions and the character of an interruption may be explained by similarities between the bass line at Bars 68 and 69 (See Ex. Kathryn Budig offers poses that mimic the actions of Vasisthasana B to prepare for the full experience.
Here are 6 tips for conquering nerves and landing the job from our Art of Teaching Yoga lead teachers. Here’s how yogis are bringing mindfulness to this important topic, so everyone feels welcome on the mat. Everyday we will offer a new reading regarding meditation practice and the spiritual path, all infused with a fresh perspective on traditional spirituality. Ben writes extensively about Buddhist & Christian spirituality for Elephant Journal, and The Web of Enlightenment. It leaves a physical impression of reality (truth) and a fizzled, disentangled notion of ego. I didn’t really know what to expect but it was something along the lines of hippies hugging trees (and each other), woo-sah, peace and love and all that jazz. This craving attaches you to the outcome and causes stress (because things never quite go the way you plan). You sit without shifting for two hours at a time trying to feel (and not react to) the pain in your legs, knees and back. While the hunger pangs went away after a few days, letting go of control over my food took a little longer.
It taught me the most valuable life skill that I currently possess, promoting my ongoing growth and development. The mental clarity and life perspective I have gained is like nothing I’ve ever experienced. Their five minute articles cover the Psychology of Relationships, the Science of Happiness and the Skills of Charisma. They are held in locations all over the world, but the specific one I attended was in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.
In this dismembered form the map was stored out of public sight in the State Archives in Hanover until in 1943 when it was destroyed during a World War II air raid. Five years later, Konrad Miller published both a colored and a black-and-white lithograph based on a hand-drawn copy. As learned man undoubtedly acquainted with classical literature, Adam may have implied himself that these were indeed the same Amazons, as mentioned in the Alexander Romance.
There is also a legend divided among three islands in the Persian Gulf which reads: Tres insule, in quibus ydri marini vicinorum cubitorum existunt, that is, a€?Three islands, in which there are sea serpents twenty cubits long,a€? but there is no representation of the serpents. Such detailed local knowledge links the production of the map with the area of Ebstorf in general.


An Examination of Cartography in Relation to Culture and Civilization (Prentice Hall, 1972), pp.
The editors of the Oxford Medieval Texts edition of Gervase of Tilburya€™s Otia Imperialia conclude that although their being the same man is an a€?attractive possibilitya€?, to accept it requires a€?too many improbable assumptionsa€?.
The map also draws most lavishly of all upon Christian sources.A  The Scriptures, the Fathers of the Church, the holy legends, and all the other elements of this magnificent synopsis of early medieval cosmography are made to fit into the Christian horizon. 1072) in Northwest Europe.A  Other near contemporary sources include the maps and legends from the Imago Mundi of Honorius Augustodunensis (ca. The creatures are eating human body parts (recognizable as feet and hands) and drinking the blood flowing out of them; a footless, handless victim is also depicted.
For modern man it may seem somewhat alienating that geography is the least important aspect on medieval maps, on which biblical and mythical narratives are embedded into an ahistorical world order. Each of them bears noble witness, in its own great cultural epoch, to a great historical process with many ups and downs, to mana€™s growing awareness of the world around him. 7) and the closing variation of the second movement, with its open fifth on the same pitches.
Eventually that's where we end up, knowing ourselves, finding the divine was always there. For example, when something goes wrong you automatically react with anger, stress, anxiety, etc. I have never even done a yoga class, so sitting on the floor for 13 hours a day hurt…a lot!
In gaining a sharper focus and removing distractions you inadvertently become aware of the clutter in your brain. After another two days of sitting in pain with my brain shouting at me, the aches softened and the voices fell silent. In fact, the teacher discussed how organised religions can harm your self-development (but that’s a much longer discussion). So, while I won’t be joining an ashram anytime soon, I will be implementing the meditation technique in my ongoing daily life. Using an entertaining blend of applied Social Psychology and Buddhist Philosophy, the articles provide a unique perspective on modern relationships.
The colored version accompanies Konrad Miller, Mappaemundi, Die altesten Weltkarten, Heft 5: Die Ebstorfkarte. Even more significantly, the map contains a vignette of the church and the graves of the martyrs of Ebstorf (Ebbekestorp), which ties it specifically to that small nunnery in particular.
One manifestation, large and immediately evident, is the depiction of Christa€™s head, feet and hands at top and bottom, and left and right of the eartha€™s circumference. Whereas the Ebstorf map measured 3.57 meters [12 feet] in diameter, the mural map in the church of Saint-Silvain at Chalivoy-Milon, Cher, France, dating from the second quarter of the 12th century, was six meters in diameter. 1129) and various tales of the 11th and 12th centuries such as that of the island discovered by St.
According to the caption, Alexander enclosed two wild nations, Gog and Magog, who will be the companions of Antichrist. As fanciful as many depictions and the abstracted land mass may appear at first, some very tangible information can be deduced by pursuing an interdisciplinary ethnographic, archaeological and historical approach, demonstrating that not every fanciful adornment is in fact a chimaera of a bored silver-haired monk. Yet we need to remind ourselves that when this movement was completed, on September 21, no transports had been announced in the camp, and, according to documents, none took place there between May 18 (when 2,500 people were sent to Auschwitz) and September 28.
If you learn to break these neural patterns you gain mental clarity, control and stability. And since you have absolutely no distractions (no phones, no reading or writing material, no entertainment, no speaking, no gestures and no eye contact) your brain starts to revolt. In fact, most modern scholars agree on the mapa€™s origin in Ebstorf, or at least for its having been made for Ebstorf, although the monastery of St Michael at LA?neburg (Rosien, Jaitner), not far away, and Hildesheim (DrA¶gereit), have also been suggested. The second is a small vignette at the center of the map that shows Christa€™s body rising from the dead and emerging from the tomb in Jerusalem. It’s like trying to listen to 15 people shout at you all at the same time, except all of these people are you. Miller transcribed and discussed the texts within the circle of the map proper, but not those outside it. Particularly in the northern fringes of the Baltic Sea several places along the shore received female names, which were commonly understood as taboo by superstitious seafarers.
For those who argue for an early date (Uhden, Rosien, DrA¶gereit, Wolf, Schaller, Hucker), the connection between the map and the English-born Gervase of Tilbury is crucial. Compared with the few similar representations of Christ on world maps, the Ebstorf map is unique in positioning Christa€™s body not outside the world (as on the Hereford map #226) or behind (as on the two sides of the Psalter map (#223) in London, and in a fresco in the cloister of the Campo Santo, Pisa), but within the world, at its four edges. It was originally a€?founda€? about 1160 and, after a fire, was a€?refounda€? between 1175 and 1209 at a Benedictine nunnery that was transformed into a Lutheran convent during the Reformation. Then, in 1930, Augustus Kropp created a hand-colored set of Sommerbrodta€™s plates that is still preserved in the School of Agriculture Ebstorf.
Those who prefer to see the map as a later construction (most recently Wilke and Kugler) dispute Gervasea€™s authorship. As Gervase himself put it: a€?Finally, man is called a world [In summa homo mundus appellatur]. The travel reports of Christian seafarers mentioning a a€?land of the womena€? may have been associated by clergymen with Amazons. Isidore of Seville attempted to do with mere words, to describe the sum total of accumulated knowledge about mana€™s habitat, the world, resulting in a comprehensive pictorial encyclopedia, albeit through the rather narrow focus of a religious context. However, its real historical value lies in other areas and, viewed in terms of the cartographera€™s intent, this map does demonstrate genuine historical value.
And the Greek calls man a microcosm, that is, a miniature world [Et graecus hominem microcosmum hoc est minorem mundum appellabat]a€™.
On the other hand, charges of cannibalism leveled against the Jews of Fulda in 1235 provide a vivid backdrop to the cannibalism on the Ebstorf map suggesting that the identification of Gog and Magog with Jews was not merely literary, but spilled over into real life. From wherever Gervase obtained his knowledge of the ancient Greek theory of microcosm-macrocosma€”a possible source would have been Isidorea€™s De rerum naturaa€”the points are that Gervase reiterated it in his book, clearly identifying himself with it, and that the Ebstorf map is the only mappamundi known that followed it. The first post-war reconstructions were made between 1951 and 1953 by the artist Rudolf Wieneke, who produced four identical copies, each a close replica of the original, all executed on the same kind of material (vellum) with the same dimensions and shape, and in the same colors (insofar as these could be identified) as the original mappamundi. Other medieval mapmakers would also have read Isidorea€™s text, but none portrayed the earth as the body of Christ. Two of the reconstructions are on public display, one in the convent of Ebstorf, the other in the Museum des FA?rstentums LA?neburg. Another parallel between Gervasea€™s Otia imperialia and the Ebstorf map is worth pointing out.
Finally, in 2007, Hartmut Kugler and his colleagues published a half-sized version of the map in the form of 61 segments in an atlas, together with a transcription of all the Latin texts on the map, a German translation, and a comprehensive commentary. In the Otia imperialia, the passages referring to the concept of microcosm and macrocosm are found in the first chapter of the first book, which deals with the creation of the world [De origine mundi et eius creatione et quot modis dicitur mundus].
As can be seen, a few sheets were already missing, therefore, in order to facilitate the mapa€™s preservation, it was re-divided into its separate sheets.



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