Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector. Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations. The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced.
It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones.
As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared).
It must be said at the outset that we have little contemporary evidence for Greco-Roman maps. Methods for accurately reproducing and eventually printing maps in sufficient quantities to enable cartographical knowledge to a€?penetrate very deepa€™ are in fact a feature only of modern times. It is nonetheless the case that many modern school atlases could not (and cannot) resist the temptation to reconstruct ancient maps by combining modern knowledge about the shape of the earth's landmass with data from ancient texts. Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them. A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K. As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales. The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts. The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials. Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view. Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found.
Although cuneiform maps may not be forerunners from which later Western maps originate, they share characteristics with other cartographic traditions in their graphic imaging of territorial, social, and cosmological space. Where once such maps would not have been admitted within a general history of cartography, a new view of the meaning of the map can embrace them.
By no means do all ancient Near Eastern maps display metrological finesse or even the use of measurement, though some characteristically do, such as the agrarian field and urban plot cadastral surveys. The maps of cities with their waterways and surrounding physical landscape combine cartography of sacred space, seen in the temple plans, with that of economic space, seen in the field surveys.
The Babylonian world map is an attempt to encompass the totality of the eartha€™s surface iconographically: land, ocean, mountain, swamp, and distant uncharted a€?regionsa€? This said, it represents more of an understanding of what the world is from the viewpoint of historical imagination than an image of its topography against a measured framework. The diversity of cultures that have sought to preserve their maps, putting them on clay, papyrus, parchment, and other writing media, points to a near universality of making maps in human culture.
Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia. In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) . In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102). It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period. To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes. Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy.
Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path.
Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator. Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity. In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description. Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance. The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side. Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere. We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down. Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist.
We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust. The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator.
Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions. The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions. Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands. European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros.
These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times. Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below.
It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top.
During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions. At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records. It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness.
These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world.
But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib. Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came. From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk. It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth.
Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts.
There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece.
In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge.
That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole.
The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date. The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge.
Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe. As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps. The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established. In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe. Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps. The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography. The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied.
Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess. Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire.
When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence.
In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life.
Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity.
Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking. The Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) thwarted a twin suicide attack plot in capital Kabul by arresting one of the would-be suicide bombers. The Ministry of Interior (MoI) said the detained would-be suicide bomber is a 12-year-old boy who was appointed by the Taliban group to carry out the attack.
According to MoI, the boy has been identified as Mohammad Yaqoob son of Sher Mohammad who has confessed that he was trained in Juma Khani training camp in Imam Sahib district of Kunduz province.
Yaqoob has also added that the training camp was supervised by TAliban leader Mullah Abdul Ghafoor and was appointed by him to carry out the attack 20 days ago. He was due to detonate a Vehicle-borne Improvised Explosive Device (VBIED) in a populated area of the city while another suicide bomber was given the task target the crowd after the first explosion. MoI said the child managed to flee and was on his way to Kunduz province when he was arrested by the security forces. This comes as a teenage suicide bomber assigned for a suicide attack by the Taliban group was arrested by the Afghan intelligence operatives from Kabul city last month. The Afghan children have regularly been recruited by the militant groups, the Taliban and the Haqqani network for the terrorist related activities, including suicide attacks. The Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi will likely visit Afghanistan to inaugurate the $300 Salma Dam built with the financial support of India, it has been reported.
It is believed Modi will stop over in Afghanistan on his way to the US in early June, according to the Times of India. This comes as the Afghan and Indian officials held talks regarding the inauguration of the dam earlier this month.
Built on Harirod river, the dam is expected to produce 42 megawatt of electricity and will irrigate around 75,000 hectares of agricultural land. India has played a crucial role by participating in the rebuilding of Afghanistan following the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001. Since 2002, the Government of India has committed USD 2 billion dollars to the socio-economic rebuilding of the Afghan state and society in accordance with the development priorities of the Government and the people of Afghanistan.
Two top commanders of the anti-government armed militants were killed in an airstrike by the Afghan Air Force (AAF) in eastern Kunar province. The 201st Silab Corps of the Afghan National Army (ANA) forces said the airstrike was carried out in Ghaziabad district. According to a statement by 201st Silab Corps, the Afghan Air Force (AAF) used A-29 light attacks aircraft in the raid which left at least 17 dead including two commanders of the militants. The statement further added that the commanders killed in the airstrike have been identified as Hamza and Akbar. A mortar and rocket launcher along with 3 Ak-47 assault rifles and various other types of explosives belonging to the militants were also destroyed in the airstrike. The anti-government armed militant groups including the Taliban insurgents have not commented regarding the report so far.
The Afghan forces have stepped counter-terrorism operations to suppress the insurgency activities of the militant groups as the insurgents are attempting to increase terrorist attacks by launching their spring offensive.
The Afghan forces are vastly utilizing the newly-added state of the art equipment including the A-29 Super Tucano fixed-wing aircraft to suppress the anti-government armed militant groups.
The Afghan Air Force A-29 Super Tucano pilots have flown more than 260 sorties since January when they received the first batch of the light attack aircraft from the United States.
The Afghan government has signed the draft peace agreement with Hezb-e-Islami group led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, Deputy Chief Executive Mohammad Khan said. He told reporters that the draft agreement has been signed and will become enforceable once the Hezb-e-Islami party signs it.
Khan further added that the group has agreed to have no links with the anti-government armed militant groups, insisting that Hekmatyar’s only demand is to remove his name from the international blacklist. Welcoming Hezb-e-Islami’s decision to join peace process, Khan said the agreement will have a positive impact on security situation of the country. According to Khan, the exact location where Hekmatyar is based is not clear so far but insisted that the government welcomes his return to the country.
He also added that Hekmatyar has neither demanded any privileges for joining peace process nor any post in the government. Khan said the draft agreement was signed by Hezb-e-Islami representatives and Afghan peace council officials in the residence of Pir Syed Ahmad Gilani.
Khan hoped that the international community will help in removing restrictions on Hezb-e-Islami party. This comes as the United States earlier welcomed political negotiations between the Afghan government and Hezb-e-Islami party led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. However, Kirby said the United States will continue to seek reconciliation conditions, including that any reconciled group must end the violence. The Taliban militants have reportedly captured Surkh Kotal in northern Baghlan province of Afghanistan following days of heavy clash. A local security official confirmed that the Afghan forces retreated from the area after they were under siege for several days. The official further added that the security personnel under the siege of the Taliban insurgents were rescued from the area.
The Taliban group earlier claimed that several security personnel were killed during the clash with the Taliban insurgents. Heavy clashes in Surkh Kotal erupted late on Saturday night as the security officials claimed that at least 28 Taliban insurgents were killed or wounded. The area fell to Taliban control despite continuous raids by the Afghan security forces to disperse the assailant militants. The Ministry of Defense said Tuesday that 31 militants were killed in the air and ground operations of the Afghan security forces in Surkh Kotal and Baghlan Markzai district. Surkh Kotal is located in the outskirts of Baghlan near province where and the area has been witnessing violence during the past several months. The Chinese President Xi Jinping has reaffirmed Beijing’s military support to the Afghan security forces during a meeting with the Chief Executive Officer Abdullah Abdullah. The Office of the Chief Executive in a statement said the Chinese President reaffirmed military aid as well as supporting Afghanistan in development and rehabilitation projects. The statement further added that the Chinese leader also announced Beijing’ support towards the Afghan-led peace process. The remarks by Jinping followed after CEO Abdullah urged China to use its influence in persuading the regional countries to fight terrorism and help maintain peace and stability in the region, specifically in Afghanistan.
Abdullah urged China to help the Afghan security forces as they continue to face the menace of regional terrorism with insurgents from the eastern and central parts of Asia pouring into Afghanistan. The commitment by Jinping comes as the country’s Chief of Army earlier pledged over $70 million to help support and equip the Afghan security forces.
During his visit to Afghanistan earlier in March, Chief of China’s People’s Liberation Army Mr. The United States has welcomed political negotiations between the Afghan government and Hezb-e-Islami party led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. Kirby further added that all relevant groups, including Hezb-e-Islami of Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, should be a part of such a political dialogue so that Afghans can talk directly to other Afghans about the future of their country. Meanwhile, he said the United States will continue to seek reconciliation conditions, including that any reconciled group must end the violence. A Chechen militant identified as Omar Chechen was killed along with five others during the clashes in north of Afghanistan. According to the security sources, the Chechen militant was killed in Bghlan-e-Markazi district of northern Baghlan province. The sources further added that five others including a commander of the militants identified as Qari Zahir were also killed during the clashes and 8 others were wounded. The security situation in northern Baghlan province has been sharply deteriorating during the recent months which follow by a large a military operation launched to clear areas of Dand-e-Ghori and Dand-e-Shahabuddin near Pul-e-Khumri city earlier this year. The Ministry of Defense (MoD) announced Tuesday at least 31 militants were killed in separate air and ground operations of the Afghan security forces in Surkh Kotal and Baghlan-e-Markazi district. According to reports, heavy clashes continue between the Afghan forces and the militant in Surkh Kotal after the militants launched a major attack on security posts late on Saturday night. The Afghan intelligence operatives busted one of the most dangerous kidnapping gangs in western Herat province of Afghanistan. The National Directorate of Security (NDS) said the gang consisted of 16 kidnappers and was led by Ghulam Farooq who is also famous as Abdul Ghafar. A statement by NDS said the other leader of the gang has been identified as Lal Mohammad who is also famous as Zarif while the third leader of the gang has been identified as Taj Mir.
The statement further added that the gang was actively operating in Herat province in the past 8 months and had kidnapped at least 10 people. The gang had demanded large ransoms from the families of the hostage for their release, NDS said, adding that three of the hostages have been identified as Abdul Wahab, Abdul Qadir and Nazir Ahmad who were killed by the gang.
NDS also added that the gang had established at least 8 cells in Herat province where they were keeping the hostages on temporary basis.
Kidnap for ransom cases still continue in parts of the country despite the Afghan intelligence nabbed two MAFIA bosses involved in major kidnappings who were later executed by the government.
The two top MAFIA leaders, Habib Istalif and Raees Khudaidad, were executed late in 2014 and early in 2015 after they were arrested by intelligence operatives. The NDS operatives released a hostage during an operation conducted in central Wardak province of Afghanistan late in the month of February. The operation was conducted as the kidnappers were demanding a huge ransom of $1 million from the family of the hostage, forcing the intelligence operatives to intervene and secure his release. A commander of the al-Qaeda terrorist network was killed with four others during separate airstrikes involving unmanned aerial vehicle of the US forces in Afghanistan. The Ministry of Defense (MoD) said the airstrikes were carried out in southern Zabul and northern Kunduz provinces.
According to a statement by MoD, the al-Qaeda commander killed in the airstrike has been identified as Mullah Mohammad Ali. The statement further added that the militants were involved in major terrorist attacks and atrocities committed against the citizens of the country.
The airstrike targeting the al-Qaeda comes amid concerns that the terrorist network is attempting to consolidate operations with the other militant groups, including the Taliban insurgents in a bid to expand foothold in the country. Meanwhile, the Afghan and US forces have stepped up counter-terrorism operations against the terrorist groups in Afghanistan, including the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terrorist group. According to reports, the US Air Force dropped 251 bombs and missiles targeting mainly the loyalists of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terrorist group in Afghanistan during the months of January and February. On the other hand, the Afghan forces are routinely targeting the terrorist groups in Afghanistan with increased capabilities, specifically with the addition of more combat helicopters and fixed wing light attack planes.
The Chief Executive Officer Abdullah Abdullah has said he is ready to have meal together with the notorious warlord Gulbuddin Hekmatyar in one table in a bid to help serve the national interests of the country. The remark by Abdullah comes as the Afghan government is expecting to finalize a peace deal with Hezb-e-Islami led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar.
In an interview with BBC, Abdullah said any step that would reduce tensions would be welcomed, emphasizing that the people of Afghanistan would welcome if negotiations between Hezb-e-Islami and Afghan High Peace Council yielded positive results. Abdullah further added that the situation has changed as he had the support of the party under the leadership of Arghandiwal.
Abdullah said he did not have the opportunity to jointly have meal with Hekmatyar when he joined the Islamic Republic government of Afghanistan but emphasized it would be not be bad if he has the opportunity to do it.
He also added that the personal interests cannot create barriers when the issue of national interest comes forward, insisting that a peace deal with Hezb-e-Islami will not have a major affect to completely change the situation in the country. However, he said he is hopeful that the other groups will learn from him and join peace talks with the Afghan government. Hekmatyar is considered is a notorious warlord for his involvement in the devastating civil war and insurgency following activities following the fall of the Taliban group. Earlier, the group was insisting on full withdrawal of the foreign forces from the country to participate in peace talks, a similar demand put forward by the Taliban group for peace talks. The Afghan government approved in principle the strategy to fight the enemy moles (secret agents) during a meeting of the National Security Council chaired by President Mohammad Ashraf Ghani. According to the Office of the President, the decision was taken following a comprehensive discussion regarding the issue.
The relevant authorities were instructed to implement the strategy in the tactical level after approving the strategy in principle. The defense and security ministers also presented their reports regarding the security situation of Helmand, Uruzgan, Kunduz, Jawzjan, Baghaln, Faryab and Kunar provinces.
The Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) personnel were hailed for their bravery, sensitivity, and competence in fight against the enemy forces. The National Security Council issued necessary instructions to the security institutions to take necessary measures to prevent outbreak of security threats in the country.


The strategy to fight the enemy moles has been approved in principle amid concerns that the enemy forces are attempting to infiltrate among the security forces.
Earlier, the newly-nominated Intelligence Chief, Masoom Stanikzai, vowed to take all necessary measures to fight against the conspiracies of the enemies of the country. The Ministry of Interior (MoI) released the photos of the would-be suicide bomber and the Vehicle-borne Improvised Explosive Device which the bomber wanted to use in targeting the Ministry of Interior compound. According to MoI, the suicide bomber was arrested from Jamhuriat Hospital road located which goes towards the Ministry of Interior compound. The photos show the would-be suicide bomber with bruises on his face and blood stains covered his clothes as the security forces are taking him away from the site where he was arrested.
Other photographs show large amount of explosives recovered from the hatchback vehicle which was in custody of the suicide bomber as he was attempting to target the ministry. Earlier, reports emerged that the suicide bomber managed to breach a number of the security posts located on the road towards the ministry compound. Meanwhile, the Taliban group rejected that the group’s suicide bomber was arrested by the security forces in Kabul today. The latest attack attempt by the militant groups comes almost a month after a deadly attack rocked capital Kabul which left at least 64 people dead and 347 others wounded.
The Afghan national security forces managed to thwart at least five major attacks in capital Kabul plotted by the notorious Haqqani terrorist network during the past one month. Meanwhile, the Resolute Support mission in a statement said Monday that a major rocket attack plot on Kabul city was foiled as the Afghan security personnel seized three 122 mm rockets before the militants manage to fire them on the city.
The NATO Foreign Ministers are expected to outline the future support of the alliance to Afghanistan during the upcoming foreign ministerial in Brussels. The official further added that the meeting will take place less than two months before the Warsaw Summit. The official also added that the alliance expect to continue to support the financial sustainment of the Afghan security forces, including through 2020; and to develop a long-term strong political partnership and practical cooperation with Afghanistan. This comes as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and partners reaffirmed commitment to support financial sustainment of the Afghan National Security Forces at plenary meeting of the Afghan National Army Trust Fund Board last Wednesday. During the meeting announcements were made of continued financial support for the sustainment of the Afghan security forces up to 2020.
In December last year, NATO and Resolute Support Partner Foreign Ministers agreed to work towards national decisions to be announced at, or prior to, the Warsaw Summit confirming financial commitments to support the Afghan security forces until 2020.
At least 31 militants were killed in separate operations of the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) in northern Baghlan province, the Ministry of Defense (MoD) said. The operations were conducted in Surkh Kotal and Baghlan Markazi areas of Baghlan involving air and ground forces of the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF). According to a statement by MoD, at least 7 militants were killed and 11 others were wounded during a ground operation of the Afghan forces. The statement further added that the Afghan Air Force (AAF) also pounded militants in Surkh Kotal area, leaving at least 24 dead. An 82 mm artillery of the militants was also destroyed along with a Dshk heavy machine gun during the airstrike, MoD added.
The anti-government armed militant groups including the Taliban insurgents have not commented regarding the reports so far. This comes at least 13 militants were killed in an airstrike in Surkh Kotal area of Baghlan province earlier. The intensified raids by Afghan forces on militants follows by clashes erupted among the Taliban militants and the Afghan security forces in the same area on Saturday night. According to the local officials, at least 28 militants were killed or wounded during the gun battle which erupted following an attack by the militants on security posts. The United States will not oppose the ongoing the ongoing political talks between the Afghan government and the Hezb-e-Islami party led by notorious warlord Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. The delegation of Hezb-e-Islami arrived for peace talks with the Afghan government in mid March following the conclusion of Quadrilateral Coordination Group (QCG) meeting on Afghan peace process. The Afghan High Peace Council officials have said they have reached to an agreement on majority of the 25 conditions of Hezb-e-Islami to join peace process. Earlier, Mohammad Ismail Qasimyar, international relations adviser to Afghanistan High Peace Council, said Hekmatyar is expected to visit Kabul to sign the agreement.
According to the High Peace Council officials, Hekmatyar has demanded the release of Hezb-e-Islami prisoners with the signing of the agreement besides removing his name together with his party member’s from the international blacklist. Earlier, the group was insisting on full withdrawal of the foreign forces from the country to participate in peace talks. However, Hekmatyar stepped back from his demands for the complete withdrawal of foreign forces with an official of Hezb-e-Islami Amin Karim Hekmatyar is no longer demanding that all foreign troops leave Afghanistan.
Over 80 Taliban insurgents were killed or wounded in a series of operations conducted by the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) forces in southern Kandahar province.
The 205th Corps of the Afghan National Army (ANA) forces in a statement said the operations were conducted in the vicinity of Shahwali Kot district. According to a statement by 205th Atal Corps, at least 41 militants were killed and 42 others were wounded during the operations.
The statement further added that the operations were led by the commander of 205th Atal Corps and the main aim of the operations was to clear the main Kandahar-Tarin Kot highway.
At least 15 different types of Improvised Explosive Device (IED) were also discovered and defused during the operations, MoD added. The Afghan forces have stepped up counter-terrorism operations in southern Kandahar province as the militant groups are attempting to expand their insurgency activities with the launch of their spring offensive earlier last month. At least 8 militants were killed and 15 others were wounded during an air raid in Arghandab district last week. Earlier, at least 32 militants were killed and 18 others were wounded during the operations in Shahwali Kot district. A suicide bomber was shot by the Afghan security forces before he manage to target the Ministry of Interior (MoI) compound in Kabul. According to reports, the suicide bomber was driving a car packed with explosives and was looking to detonate it inside the ministry compound. The suicide bomber was identified by the security personnel who acted immediately by opening fire on him as he had reportedly breached several check points. This comes as Kabul was hit by a deadly suicide attack earlier last month which left at least 64 people dead and 347 others wounded.
Separate demonstrations are due to be organized in Japan, Austria and Australia today a day after a massive demonstration was organized in capital Kabul.
Ahmad Behzad, one of the organizers of the demonstrations, said the demonstrations would be organized near the Embassy of Afghanistan and the Parliament of Australia. He said demonstrations would also be organized in Tokyo, near the parliament of Japan, to protest against discrimination and injustice. According to Behzad, the demonstrations in Tokyo would have a key role as the country is one of the main donors of the 500kV TUTAP project. Behzad also added that the demonstrations in Austria will be organized in three main cities of the country, including Vienna. Hundreds of thousands of people participated in the massive demonstration in capital Kabul on Monday as the protesters demanded the implementation of TUTAP project through Bamyan and Wardak provinces. The massive demonstration led to the closure of main roads in the city amid concerns that the protest could turn violent. The Afghan government earlier said the decision for implementing TUTAP through Salang was taken by cabinet of the former government in 2013 but the unity government delayed the project for 6 months to ensure supply to electricity to Bamyan.
Vowing to modify the project, the Palace in a statement, said the government has arranged funds for the supply of electricity to Bamyan which would be concluded until 2018 and will arrange 300 megawatt of electricity which is more than the earlier plans considered for Bamyan to provide 30 megawatt electricity until 2023. The Afghan government has currently suspended the procurement and execution work of the project as President Ghani has ordered a commission to review all related documents regarding the project. At least 20 Taliban insurgents were killed in a drone strike in northern Kunduz province of Afghanistan, local officials said. The airstrike was carried out earlier today in Dasht-e-Archi district targeting two vehicles of the Taliban insurgents.
Provincial police spokesman Hejratullah Akbari said the two vehicles were targeted around 10:00 am local time in Mullah Quli area.
He said preliminary reports suggest a number of the Taliban commanders were also among those killed in the airstrike. Kunduz is among the relatively volatile provinces in northern Afghanistan were anti-government armed militant groups are actively operating in a number of its districts and often carry out insurgency activities. The Taliban militants launched a major offensive during the recent weeks in a bid to capture key parts of Kunduz province, including the strategic Kunduz city which was seized by the group last year. The offensive was launched as the group announced its spring offensive earlier last month and vowed to carry out more attacks across the country.
Meanwhile, the Afghan National Security Forces arrested a military chief of the Taliban group, Qari Salim, arrested during a special night raid late last month. Qari Salim was a key leader of the Taliban group who played a vital role in the collapse of Kunduz city last year. Afghanistan and China signed six documents on bilateral cooperation during Chief Executive Officer Abdullah Abdullah’s visit to China.
The Office of the Chief Executive in a statement said the documents included 2 agreements, 1 Memorandum of Understanding and 3 Exchange Notes. The statement further added that the documents were signed in the presence of CEO Abdullah and China’s Prime Minister.
The first agreement was signed by the Minister of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock of Afghanistan , the statement said, adding that the agreement will pave the way for bilateral cooperation between the two nations on production and export of Afghan Saffron.
The second agreement was signed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Afghanistan Salahuddin Rabbani for the technical cooperation of China to Afghanistan, having a value of 500 Chinese Yuan. The third agreement signed between the two nations was on bilateral cooperation between Kabul and Beijing on Silk Route which was also signed by Foreign Minister Rabbani and his Chinese counterpart. The three other documents signed include construction of an auditorium in Kabul University, 50 million Yuan non-emergency aid by China to Afghanistan and survey for the construction of cost-effective houses for the government employees. A major rocket attack plot on Kabul city was foiled as the Afghan security personnel seized three 122 mm rockets before the militants manage to fire them on the city.
The statement further added that the MCTF members acted on source information and seized three 122 mm rockets aimed at the city of Kabul. According to RS, the 122 mm rockets are a fairly rare occurrence in Afghanistan and deliver devastating effects from their 40+ pound warhead. This comes as the anti-government armed militant groups have been attempting to carry out attacks in capital Kabul. Several suspects were arrested and various types of weapons and explosives were confiscated from the detained militants in connection to the attack plots.
President Ghani also thanked the Afghan security forces for maintaining security for the massive demonstration and preventing the enemy conspiracies to conduct destructive activities as the country is on a high alert. He reiterated that the current year will be a year of mobility for development, promising that he will put all efforts in place to consider balance in the implementation of the projects so that all the people and provinces benefit from the projects.
Hundreds of thousands of people started demonstrations from the west of Kabul city to protest against the change of route for the mega 500kV power project.
The protesters demanded to implement the project through Bamyan and Maidan Wardak provinces and slammed the government for discrimination and injustice.
However, President Ghani said Sunday that Salang was approved as the route of the project by the cabinet of former the government, insisting that the government of national unity did not have any role in determining the route of the project. He also suspended the execution of the project and issued a decree for the formation of a national commission to review the 500kV power project route from Pul-e-Khumri to Arghandi. It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals. A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them.
Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation. Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history. Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps.
But the trans-local culture did not penetrate very deep The high culture owed this peculiar combination of wide expanse and superficiality to the nature of communications in the preindustrial world, in combination with scarcity and political factors.
Ancient a€?educated mena€? covered huge distances in both place and time to debate scientific questions about geography.
In the modern world, the nature of communications allows original texts and graphics to be preserved, transmitted and accessed for extended periods of time. In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store. When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time.
Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others.
Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training. Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art. It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch. It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness.
There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic. In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C. In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213.
The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India.
Cuneiform texts provide several varieties of evidence for the ancient Mesopotamian efforts to express order by describing, delimiting, and measuring the heaven and earth of their experience, producing house, temple, plot, and field plans, city maps, and, with respect to the celestial landscape, diagrammatic depictions of stars. The historiography of maps and cartography has emerged from criticisms similar in nature to those made against the modernist or presentist historiography of science, namely, that in reifying science or sciences such as cartography, false evolutionary histories are liable to be constructed. Concern for orientation is attested in a number of maps, but not always in the same way, although with a tendency toward an oblique orientation northwest to southeast.
The cities of Nippur and Babylon had a religious and cosmological function as well as a political and economic one.
It offers a selective account of the relationship of Babylon to other places, including those that were at the furthest reach of knowledge. Cognitive psychologists claim that we come into our physical world mentally equipped to perceive and describe space and spatial relationships. Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C.
Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther. We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological. It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period. Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era. Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported.
This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death.
The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one.
A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained. The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years. There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole.
Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man. The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre. These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207).
The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance. This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps. The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest. In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328). The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass.
According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense.
We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion. Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ. That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii. That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race). That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c. That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents. The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps. To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps. We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought. In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice. Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth.
With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general. Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge. In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed.
While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves. Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge. Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions. By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean. While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences. The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps. Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries. A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping. In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium. Fang Fenghui, announced the fresh military aid, saying the latest aid will follow besides Beijing’s ongoing cooperation in development and economic sector.
Fenghui also added that China will call a regional summit to implement the proposal by President Ghani during Shanghai conference for fight against terrorism. Fenghui said Afghanistan is located in a strategic location and acts as an important economic belt, which is continuously threatened by the terror groups.
Among the Afghan Government, the Afghan High Peace Council, and the representatives of the group,” he added.
They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment.
Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?. In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals. They communicated in the same a€?learned languagea€?a€” Greek a€” and discussed a€?the same body of ideasa€?. The pre-modern world, on the other hand, had only a series of copies to work with, made over the centuries on organic material. Only Senefeldera€™s invention of lithography in 1796, and the innovative use of it for the mass printing of graphics, including in color, In the century that followed, allowed maps to be printed and distributed in quantity. Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse.


The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist.
A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes. Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships. But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive. The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period.
Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms. Various orders of power are implicit in the expression of these aspects of order in the environment. Some originating point is identified, such as the origins of science in Greece, or of mapmaking in Babylonia, from which a continuous history may be written from a presentist perspective, a tale of a discipline's inexorable progress from its originating moment to the present. Ancient Near Eastern maps may not have invariably been meant as exact or direct replications of territory, but there can be little doubt that they distinctively reflect the conceptual terrain of their social community and culture at large. In the periods of their supremacy each was viewed as the center of the universe, as the meeting ground between heaven and the netherworld. The linguistic act of spatial description is perhaps a proto-mapmaking function of our very desire and attempt to place ourselves in relation to the physical world.
The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries. From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties.
We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus.
In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work. But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven. On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan. Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors.
Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated.
Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them.
Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra.
Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire. John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor. In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions. In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps. Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged. Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella. Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world.
Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation.
It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena. On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places. To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society.
Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence.
Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries.
The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections. Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance. Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions.
This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time. The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction. Their debate a€?did not penetrate very deepa€? within the culture, which is why one should draw a sharp distinction between descriptive geography, with its wide application, and mathematical or scientific geography, for which no such application was envisaged or achieved. The process was almost manageable for texts, multiple copies of which could be created by copyist teams working fro dictation. After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text. Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns. They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on. The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy. The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art.
Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period.
They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope. Administrative and economic powers support, or even require, the making of maps, as well as determining overtly the topographies that maps depict. Critical cartographic history, however, has laid aside such ideas, and we no longer look to (in the words of Denis Wood), a€?a hero saga involving such men as Eratosthenes, Ptolemy, Mercator, and the Cassinis, that tracked cartographic progress from humble origins in Mesopotamia to the putative accomplishments of the Greeks and Romansa€?. The maps of buildings and fields focus on the urban and agricultural environment, matters of critical importance to whatever political and economic powers prevailed. The map of the principal temple in Babylon, E-sagil, which was the earthly abode of the national deity Marduk, represents the terrestrial counterpart to the celestial residence of the great god Enlil, designed, figuratively speaking, on the blueprint of the cosmic subterranean sweet watery region of the Apsu. By extension, we should not doubt that mapmaking too, in all its historical subjectivity, is a universal feature of human culture. The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes. We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science.
With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens.
Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained. Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean.
Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt. Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period. Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret.
The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration. In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors. Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances. If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps. This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators. Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making.
All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times. The reasons for this divide include the limited quantity of scientific geographic scholarship, the nature of communications and scarcity, and political factors.
But it was not feasible for graphics, the copying of which inevitably led to increasing distortion.
Any assumption that maps were widely available in the preindustrial world thus derives from anachronistic thinking based on later developments.
There is no evidence for the use of such forms of representation in ancient maps, and this book deliberately presents no such reconstructions. He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing.
Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents. Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts. The interest of the cuneiform maps lies in their rich articulation of such a feature, uniquely shaped by the particular social norms and forces that emerged and changed within ancient Mesopotamian history. However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca.
From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II. There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed.
Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od. Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on. The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase.
Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e. At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth.
In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive. Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres].
And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world. It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands. On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping.
Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes.
This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade. 90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition. The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography. Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history.
Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made. All this is also evident in the history of cartography (a modern term created via a combination of Greek chartes, a€?charta€™, and graphein, a€?writea€™ or a€?drawa€™), that is, the study of maps as a special form of communicating geographic knowledge. Copies of copies of copies must generally have been very different from the vanished original, hence the scarcity of scholarly, illustrations transmitted from the ancient world. There is even a temptation to go beyond reconstructions and invent a€” that is, falsify a€” maps from the ancient world. It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem.
I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia. This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map.
It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era.
The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making. See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes. Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands.
Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research. Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions. By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions.
The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents. From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic. Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction.
The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps. There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice. With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century. It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration. Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property.
No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings.
Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars.
Maps are generally two-dimensional representations, often to scale, of portions of the earth's surface. Every generation or so, a new a€?discoverya€™ of such a map is announced, only to be exposed as either a hoax designed to embarrass an individual scholar or scholars in general, or an attempt to make money from an unsuspecting public. The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C.
It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps. The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged.
The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities. Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense. The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South.
Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society.
In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds.
Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts. Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail.
The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature. Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned.
The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports.
If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas. It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate. It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him. Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks. Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction.
Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world. Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization.
Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps. Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias. The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar.
Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date. The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface.
Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India.
The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps. Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars.
In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries. The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs.
Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?.
What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate. They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through.
Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night. There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form. Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc. As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities.
He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter. It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement.



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