1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography.
PAINTING OF THE WEEK - Ruins of the Holyrood Chapel by Moonlight, oil on canvas, 1824, Louis Daguerre.
G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c.
The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph.
Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea.
John Thomas North (pictured), originally a Yorkshire mechanic, became a friend of the future King George V and was worth $10 million in 1889? King George V of the United Kingdom was a member of the Society for the Prevention of Calling Sleeping Car Porters "George"? 19 crewmen of the Russian oceanliner SS Czar received the Silver Sea Gallantry Medal from King George V of the United Kingdom for rescuing 102 survivors from a burning ship in October 1913?
Much of what we know about early Italy come from the Histora Naturalis by Pliny the Elder which was published around 77-79 A.D. Many people groups possess mythological descriptions of their origins, often contained in the form of totems -- ancient heroes, animals, or even plants and trees, from which that group of people emerged at first on earth. According to legend, the king of a small community in Italy ordered his twin sons to be thrown into the Tiber River. Romulus (hence the name a€?Romea€?) forged numerous alliances with neighboring peoples in order to fortify and protect a€?for eternitya€? the city which eventually gained the name, a€?The Eternal City.a€? The time period for this story is not ancient.
They established an absolute monarchy with a Senate, a constitution, and a popular assembly. It was early Rome and not Athens that was to lay the greatest amount of groundwork for later democracies.
To ensure that a dictatorship or absolute ruler could not emerge, the Republic developed a series of assemblies, assuring that every class within society would have representation. The Senate, however, endured through the several sacks of Rome by the barbarians, and even functioned under several Germanic emperors. Plebian Council: each of the 35 tribes selected representative to the Council, which passed most laws, and served as a court of appeals. Magistrates: served as judges, overseers of legal affairs, enforces of an early form of habeas corpus (an accused persona€™s right to be heard and not held without sufficient evidence) were selected by the Assembly of the Centuries.
Consuls: were elected by the populace annually from among the magistrates, presided over the Senate and the Assemblies, had supreme civil and military powers, were heads of the Roman government, and when outside of Rome commanded an army. Roman society in the Republic developed a hierarchical format, dividing the people into two classes: the patricians (land-owning aristocracy) and plebians (eveyone else -- until slavery developed). As the Republic took on a more military-expansionist quality, success in warfare became connected with advancement in politics. Rome was originally a land army, but copied the ships of the Carthaginians, who at the time were masters of the Mediterranean Ocean. In addition, Antiochus ordered all Jewish worship to cease, killed those who disobeyed, and profaned the temple by offering pigs on the holy altar.
The unrest in Rome due to massive unemployment and the influx of new people led to the rise of radical rivalries. The appointment of Julius Caesar as dictator for life for all practical purposes marked the end of the Republic.
Having arrived in Rome Octavian, aided by Marc Antony, then pursued Julius Brutus the assassin of his uncle to Greece, where two battles at Philippi in northern Greece took place, Octavian defeated and killed Brutus.
The three members of the second triumvirate agreed to divide the Republic among themselves -- Octavian took the West, Antony took the East, including Egypt, and Lepidus took Spain and North Africa. Marc Antony, now residing in Egypt, soon made a romantic friendship with Cleopatra with whom he produced several children.
Octavian and Anthony despised each other and Lepidus, the third member of the triumvirate, was too weak a character to stand up to either. Following the death of Julius, six emperors from his family line ruled successively from 27 B. Claudius was a respected older Senator leader when he succeeded Caligula, his nephew, in 47 A.D. For instance, during one part of the siege laid by the Romans, the Zealots destroyed food supplies that were stored in the city in order to gain an advantage over their rival factions. Vespasian gained control of the Roman wheat supply in Egypt and North Africa and thereby announced his intentions. When Vespasian left with his troops to go north, the Jews, and especially the Zealots, saw this as a sign of weakness.
Prior to the arrival of Vespasian, civil war was taking place inside of Jerusalem The Hellenized Jews, the Pharisees, the Zealots, and the ordinary people were locked in a chaos of robbery, intrigue, murder, and assassination.
For three generations the high priest selected to lead temple worship did not come from the line of Aaron, as prescribed in Scripture. These high priests were rejected by the conservative, religious party as political stooges of the Romans and certainly not lawfully selected high priests. Things became so desperate in the city that people resorted eating animal manure, and there is even a reported case of cannibalism. Finally, after months of siege, the Romans managed to scale the walls, burn the temple and burn the city. Jesus instructed his disciples and they in turn the other Christians in Jerusalem about this impending terror. The Christians were warned by the prophecy of Jesus to flee the city when they saw wars, rumors of wars, earthquakes and the other accompanying events. The temple worship in Jerusalem came to an end, as did the priesthood and the sacrificial system. It was Goda€™s final statement in the destroying of Jerusalem that the new Sacrifice had come, Jesus, the Lamb of God, He was now the High Priest. This dynasty brought excellent administrative leadership to the Empire through the absolute rule of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. A large system of aqueducts, sewer systems, and medicine improved the health of the empire. Julius Caesar developed a calendar containing 12 months and 365 days which was universally adopted in the domains of the Empire.
The Gregorian calendar has four months with a length of 30 days and seven months that are 31 days long. Central heating in homes was developed in construction methods that allowed for air spaces under houses through which hot air from furnaces could circulate.
Concrete was invented by the Romans, making possible the large construction projects--stadiums, theaters, basilicas, aqueducts, basilicas. Roman architecture first used domes in constructing temples, which made possible larger unsupported ceilings in public buildings.
Latin became the a€?lingua francaa€? throughout the empire and produced the foundation for the a€?Romance languagesa€? -- Italian, Spanish, French, Romanian. A successive line of emperors ruled absolutely from Rome over an empire that covered most of the known world.
The Christian Church grew rapidly throughout the empire and very little opposition to the Church was experienced after the time of Trajan. The elevation of Constantine marked the beginning of a new Empire, an Empire to be greatly impacted by the Christian Church. There will certainly be emperors who would be disappointed that they are not included in the chart below. Due to a variety of factors, including geography, military strength, and leadership, the city of Rome was over time able to gain control over central and southern Italy. Rome was first governed by a monarchy which was replaced by a Republic -- the Republic provided a separation of powers and responsibilities, primarily concentrated in the Senate and among several important assemblies.
Tensions and conflict between the Patricians and the Plebeians escalated and broke out into hostilities which threatened the peace and security of Rome.
A first triumvirate was formed (Julius, Pompey, Crassus), seeking leadership and resolution to the conflict and granting authority. Juliusa€™ assassination on the floor of the Senate by Brutus resulted in the formation of the second triumvirate composed of Octavian, Marc Anthony, and Lepidus. Although married to Octaviana€™s sister, Marc Anthony lived openly with Cleopatra in Alexandria, Egypt.
The clash between Octavian and Anthony was settled at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, with Anthony and Cleopatra driven back to Alexandria where both committed suicide. The last of the Julian line, Nero, was emperor who killed the two apostles, Peter and Paul, in Rome in 67 AD. Rome grew to a huge empire that controlled almost all of the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea from the Euphrates on the East to the Atlantic Ocean on the west, as well as Gaul (France), Spain, and England.
Most roots of Western civilization can be traced to elements that existed in the Roman Empire from about 27 B.C.
Rome contributed roads, bridges, architecture, citizenship, language, republicanism, and culture to Europe -- producing the famed Pax Romana. The rise of the Roman Empire was foretold in the dream of the Persian king, Nebuchadnezzar, as interpreted by Daniel in his prophecy 2:1-45. The Roman Empire provided the environment (language, roads) that enabled the Christian Church to grow throughout the known world. Ultimately, the Christian Church conquered the Roman Empire through the faithful witness of Christians throughout the empire and with the conversion of the Emperor Constantine to the Christian faith.
Describe the interaction between the Goths and the Romans, resulting ultimately in the sacking of Rome in 476 A.D. The small town was established on the banks of the Tiber River on an elevated site to give protection. Jerusalem had been under Seleucid control for many years.A  When they heard a false rumor in 167 BC that Antiochus Epiphanes IV, king of the Seleucids, had been killed in battle in Egypt, a rebellion broke out in the city.
While in Egypt Julius developed a relationship with Cleopatra, teenage ruler of Egypt, who subsequently bore him a son.
Octavian, nephew of Julius, was appointed by the Senate to a new triumvirate togetherA  with Marc Antony and Lepidus in 43 B.C. Having arrived in Rome Octavian, aided by Marc Antony, then pursued Julius Brutus the assassin of his uncleA  to Greece, where two battles at Philippi in northern Greece took place, Octavian defeated and killed Brutus.
Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light.
Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop.
According to such mythologies the Germans emerged suddenly from a crack in the eartha€™s surface.
As with the story of Cronos and his son Zeus, the king feared that when they reached adulthood the twins would seize his position. Natural resources in the area provided timber, clay, straw, and abundant fish for the construction of houses and protective walls and for food. They migrated into northern Italy and in the 6th century moved south from Tuscany northern Italy to the Tiber.
The Senate functioned as an advisory council to the king, and the assembly had matters referred to it for popular input, which the king could accept or ignore.
The citizens were divided into centuries (100 citizens) and 35 tribes, 4 major tribes in the city of Rome (urban dwellers) and 31 rural tribes (farmers, landowners).
The Senate began during the Roman monarchy, then gained additional power in the Republic, but with the advent of the Empire, declined in its power and influence.
In two months they amazingly built over 300 war ships and trained 10,000 marines to combat Carthage. A series of heartless and corrupt kings led to a social and political chaos so bad that in 64 BC Rome had to step in and conquer the area in order to quell the confusion. A series of assassinations, grabs for power, and appointments of individuals by the Senate outside the normal rules of the constitution, caused a crisis. When Pompey landed in Alexandria, he was killed by Egyptians who thought they were being loyal to Julius and would find favor with him.
Cleopatra presumed that after Julius returned to Rome he would call for her and her son to join him there. This action by the Senate and the perceived arrogance of Julius greatly alarmed a group in the Senate led by Julius Brutus. It was not simply because of his personal attributes or that he was the nephew of Julius that caused the Senate to include Octavian.
Perhaps the geographic separation would enable the second triumvirate succeed where the first had failed. To make matters worse, Antony was married to the sister of Octavian and Octavian, in turn, was married to the sister of Marc Antony! The countryside was divided between several factions.The Hellenized Jews had become European in their dress, language, and culture.
The Zealots also dressed as women to disguise themselves and plunged daggers into rivals on the streets of Jerusalem. Furthermore, Jewish worship had so declined that prostitutes, according to Josephus the Jewish historian of the Roman Empire and school mate of Titus, were plying their trade inside the temple walls! He placed three legions around the western sides of the city and a fourth on the east on i??the Mount of Olives. Josephus states that the stench of the dead on crosses was so great that legionnaires became sick at the odor.


This was Goda€™s judgement upon a people who rejected him, although he presented himself to them as their Messiah.
The Julian Calendar provided the names of the months used world-wide and served as Europea€™s unified calendar until 1582 when Pope Gregory XIII developed the Gregorian Calendar. February is the only month that is 28 days long in common years and 29 days long in leap years. Public restrooms and public baths were also introduced by the Romans, although public toilets were present earlier in Greece, also.
Arches could support heavier loads than columns and flat roofs by distributing the weight downward through each segment of the archa€™s construction. Most famous of Roman domed buildings was the Pantheon in Rome, the temple dedicated to the worship and honoring of a€?all the gods,a€? which is what the word a€?pantheona€? means in Greek.
After Trajan, Christians became progressively accepted and many were appointed to positions in government and the military, and many others held important positions as teachers and professors. Marc Anthony despised Octavian and spent most of his time in Egypt with the Eastern troops.
He became the first bona fide Emperor and the second of six in the Julian line to rule Rome. When Pompey landed in Alexandria, he was killed by Egyptians who thought they were being loyal to Julius and would find favor with him.A  However, Julius had a personal rule -- no leader defeated by Julius would be put to death.
Actium was a naval battle, pitting the forces of Octavian and Rome against those of Marc Antony and the Egyptian forces of Cleopatra.
Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. Many primitive tribes believe that a totem animal was their ancient ancestor, hence the totem poles among the Alaskan tribes. When they arrived at the Tiber and the early settlements around present-day Rome, they cleared the mud huts of the original inhabitants, dug canals for irrigation and draining of swamps, and organized cattle herding into a sustainable industry. Rome with its navy invaded Carthage, burned it to the ground, and poured salt onto the soil so that a city could never again be built there. To the south in Attica and the Peloponnese the Attican League rose in rebellion against the Roman invaders, but were quickly defeated. This is but one of several times that God used pagan armies as his tool to bring justice to evil kings and kingdoms. Brutus was a close friend of Julius and had fought with him at Pharsalus against Pompey, but he was alarmed at the power grab by Julius To protect the Republic against a dictatorship, Brutus and others in the Senate made a bloody plan. Roman culture had so idealized the military that it was inconceivable for anyone but military leaders to be appointed to the triumvirate. The fact was that Octavian had marched on Rome and demanded that the Senate appoint him as one of the consuls!
He was a well-qualified leader and was the emperor who ordered the census which caused Joseph and Mary to travel to Bethlehem.
He was then succeeded by his brother, Domitian, who many saw as a weaker candidate because he lacked the military zeal of his father and brother. Vespasian with 60,000 Roman legionnaires worked his way south through Syria, Samaria, and northern Judah, systematically wiping out all resistance to Romea€™s authority. In protest, many of the faithful, a probably led by the men who should legally have become high priest, left Jerusalem for Masada in the south east. When the Passover season arrived, Titus a€?politelya€? allowed the thousands of pilgrims to enter the city, but then refused to allow them to leave. When it was discovered that some attempted to escape after having swallowed the gold jewelry and coins, the Romans hired Arabs to slit the stomachs of those who attempted to flee in order to seek for the hidden gold.
But it was a further evidence of the truthfulness of the message of Jesus, that in him alone is found the forgiveness of sins and the free gift of eternal life.
Some were fed by manmade reservoirs, one of the earliest, large scale attempts to manage natural resources.
There are at least 333 terms that are literally the same in spelling and meaning in both Latin and English. He placed two other men under Maximian and himself as junior partners, so-to-speak -- Constantius in Gaul as a junior partner under Maximian, and Galerius in the east under Diocletian, giving to them the title Augustus.
But for this study, the following are listed as emperors and lines of emperors that are worth remembering. Lepidus foolishly attempted to take authority over Octaviana€™s troops and was expelled by Octavian from the triumvirate. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight.
A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene.
The leading city of the rebellious Attican League, Corinth, was burned to the ground by the Romans. For many years the plebians, out of loyalty to the Republic, overlooked the need for social reforms, but with the influx of slaves things were about to change.
The three arbitrarily chose themselves to take the power in what was basically a military coup. Hence, Julius, the last man standing of the three, returned to Rome and was declared a€?Perpetual Dictatora€? by the Senate in 44 B.C. Second, he secretly stole the private will of Anthony and made its terms known to the Senate. They secured Roman control of Britain and strengthened the borders with the Germanic tribes. The Zealots tended to be hot-headed nationalists bent on independence, not only from Rome, but also from what was perceived to me a corrupt priesthood. Many citizens fled in front of the troops to the south, leaving behind burning towns and cities, and seeking the safety of the high-walled Jerusalem. Some believe these were the Essenes who kept the Dead Sea Scrolls along the shores of the Dead Sea. This put enormous strains on the food and water supplies and virtually broke down all health and sanitation systems.
Expansion into the Balkans, Spain, Britain, Gaul, Persia, and North Africa produced the greatest era of Romanization. The road networks were built throughout Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, including the famed Apian Way that connected major cities and military bases in Italy with Rome.
The idea was that when either Diocletian or Maximian would die or retire, the junior partners would become the next emperors. Upon arriving in Egypt and learning about Pompeya€™s death, Julius put to death the assassins of Pompey.
Hence, Julius, the last man standing of the three, returned to Rome and was declared a€?Perpetual Dictatora€?A  by the Senate in 44 B.C. Many citizens fled in front of the troops to the south, leaving behind burning towns and cities,A  and seeking the safety of the high-walled Jerusalem. The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light.
Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself. When they reached maturity, Romulus murdered Remus (a memory of Cain and Abel?) and formed the community of Rome. The three were Julius Caesar from his assignment in England, Pompey from his station in Spain, and Crassus in his station from Syria. In order to prevent armed revolutions in Rome, generals returning to Rome were forbidden to allow their troops to cross the Rubicon en mass.
Antonya€™s will provided for large land grants in Italy for the children he had sired with Cleopatra. The dating of the writing of the Book of Revelation by John while on Patmos determines whether the book was written prior to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.
They passed new tax codes to restore the Roman treasury and increased the silver base for the Roman currency.
The civil war was directed not only at Rome, but was conducted within Jerusalem by one faction against the other.
The goal was to prevent chaos at the death of an emperor and to provide orderly succession of leadership. Christians were required to make sacrifices to the gods or face imprisonment, exile, or death.
Cleopatra, according to legend used a poisonous snake in her bed to inflict the fatal wound. It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride.
It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot. And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. The king was replaced by two consuls who were elected by the populace annually (the idea was you cana€™t trust one ruler or hea€™ll attempt to rule absolutely, and cana€™t allow him to serve for long periods of time or he will rule forever!), and the Senate was given expanded powers (rather than being merely an advisory group as they were under the former monarchy). General Hannibal of Carthage, during the second of the three Punic Wars invaded Italy, crossing the Alps with his troops, including a unit of 37 elephants. Crassus had earlier gained fame for having defeated the slave revolt in Italy led by the slave Spartacus. I tell you the truth, this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened.
Her death placed the vast wealth of Egypt at Romea€™s disposal and Egypt voluntarily became a province of the Roman Empire.
First, it filled the tribes and Council with newcomers who were not content to allow the status quo to continue. Those who accept the early date under Nero interpret Revelation to apply primarily to the destruction of Jerusalem, the temple and sacrificial system, and ultimately the downfall of the Roman Empire, and do not see the book addressing primarily things which are to happen wo thousand or more years in the future. But I know enough about chemistry to know that a chemical by itself may be poisonous but not poisonous when in a compound with other chemicals. The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters. All officials served one-year terms, except during times of emergency, so that no one person could gain power over his fellow citizens. So angered were they that they declared war on Cleopatra -- knowing that this would bring Antony into the conflict also, but avoiding, technically at least, a Roman civil war.
Some believe also that Nero was the emperor who sent John the Apostle to exile on the island of Patmos where he composed the Book of Revelation. Those who accept the late date for the book view it as a prophecy about things to happen at the end of the age. So angered were they that they declared war on Cleopatra -- knowing that this would bringA  Antony into the conflict also, but avoiding, technically at least, a Roman civil war. In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light.
Over time a constitution was adopted that featured an early form of separation of powers and a system of checks and balances. Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c. It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography. In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened. More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype). Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide.
The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. But you should be aware that the story of Chicken Little is notA  a "fable character." While he did say "The sky is falling" quite a bit, this was only because he had difficulty making contact the his agent provocateur whose actual physical appearance had changed over the years. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.


The video faculty includes Eric Hulsizer, a former Channel 8 cameramanA who photographed "Channel 8 On Your Side," and Lisa Inserra of Cox Media (the company that owns Valpack) who is active in producing television commercials for her company's clients.az?i»? In my program, I've studied drawing, camera operation, scripting, digital imaging, programming basics, copyright law, video editing, website design, sound production and editing. Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. One of myA professors says the program is the best of its kind in the Tampa Bay area and I think he's right.az?i»?i»? Please, please, put the word out to others so that this fine program will be better known. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative.
It doesn't matter what your heritage is or whether you are still in high school or old enough for Medicare.
This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers.
He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated.
Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce.
Petersburg Collede digital arts program is filled with both talented professors and students. In your story on stadium horns, you called them vuvuzwelas, what is that funny looking symbol after the photo credits. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras.
Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight.
In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. The image can be used freely, subject to some restrictive terms in the license, including crediting the photographer. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii.
Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907. It looks to me like he called on Curtis LeMay, Colonel Clearwater - and then realizing he had made a mistake - schluffed it into Colonel Kilgore. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory.
The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor. Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.
Here's a photo of American school children using the original Bellamy salute:A I think the photo speaks for itself.
Colonel Clearwater Dear Colonel Clearwater: What do you think about the Egyptian revolution?
Fundamentalists, in any religion, are usually a reaction to what the followers perceive as injustice. This doesn't mean Egyptian society and culture will necessarily change; it is still their culture and values. But in the long run any thing they make of it will be for their benefit (and not the benefit of the United States). Not by rampeling down the side of the building like Tom Cruise, but by sliding in with a tourist visa when it was not open to tourists. Clearwater: Republicans are betting that your readers don't care - that after all you did to beat them in 2006 and 2008, you're going to sit this one out.
So they're whipping up their base by blocking help to unemployed workers, blocking summer jobs for teens, apologizing to the big companies that gave us the spill in the Gulf, and doing anything else they can do to stop progress. Yes, that Rand Paul, who says freedom means a private business can discriminate against African-Americans, and that President Obama holding polluters accountable for the mess in the Gulf is "un-American." And he's not alone. One candidate calls Social Security "horrible policy," while another has said that Americans will turn to "Second Amendment remedies" against Democrats. In New Hampshire, Paul Hodes is running neck-and-neck with his Republican opponent to take this seat for the Democrats. We've just started to turn our country around, passing healthcare reform, working to hold the big banks accountable for the Wall Street meltdown, pushing legislation to address climate change and end our addiction to oil. The GOP is betting big that saying "no" and blocking progress is a path to success in November.What bet will you make? I think the Republicans should adopt as their emblem the condom because it more clearly reflects the party's political stance. A condom stands for inflation, halts production, destroys the next generation, protects a bunch of pricks, and gives one a sense of security while screwing others.
Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, Last week, my friend and colleague, Congressman Anthony Weiner, did something very good, and very gutsy.
Weiner's report showed that this firm, which sells gold coins, rips off its customers while benefiting directly from Beck's Chicken Little lunacy about the economy.
Every time Beck screams that there is an impending Obama-led government takeover of the economy and your savings aren't safe, he's making a sales pitch for this sleazy advertiser. You see, Beck's ratings have recently crashed, and most of his reputable advertisers have deserted him. Now that he's been exposed, Beck has spent the last week using his big media platform to attack and undermine Weiner - he even set up an attack website designed to damage Weiner's political standing.
This collusion between big media, conservative commentators, and quack economics is a scam, but it is powerful if it remains unopposed. And we need to support people like Weiner, who have the guts to go after right-wing lunacy at the source. Consider his statement: "I beg you, look for the words 'social justice' or 'economic justice' on your church Web site. That oil disaster must be stopped, and a way must be found."I am not the original author of that sensible thought, but it has been my favorite definition of faith for a while. While we have no way of certainty for moving past them, working to find a pathway that takes us beyond our doubts is the best option in my view. Then how come Congress starts each session with a prayer and the president is sworn in on a Bible? Wants to KnowDear Wants to Know, As I said in an earlier reply, our countrys laws and structure are not based on the God of the Bible and the Ten Commandments, as Sarah Palin and others claim.
So most of us do not work on Sunday and some businesses are not open for business on Sunday.
So we have a religious custom of not working on Sunday and a secular custom of watching football on Sunday.
The Constitution states that the president must take an oath, but it does not mention anything about a Bible. Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, I understand you answer, but you say customs and traditions.
Wants to Know MoreDear Wants to Know More, It is important to realize the difference between a custom and a tradition.
It is a custom at my house that every year we watch football on Thanksgiving Day after we eat.
A tradition is a ceremony invented for the purpose of commemorating some historical event or to develop a sense of binding in a community or religious group.
Thanksgiving Day is a tradition in America that serves the purpose of reminding us of what we have from God for which to be thankful and is loosely based on the first harvest feast of the Pilgrims to celebrate their first year of survival in the New World. It is a tradition; a ceremony we use to create a common bond among Americans by commemorating our heritage.
When Congress meets, the first thing that happens is that the designated speaker calls the group together. Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater, I have just seen a video about an organization called the Council on Foreign Relations. This organization has members who were past Presidents and past Secretary of States of the United States, plus leaders in the fields of finance, industry, and other important positions in society. The spokesman on the video has concluded that this organization must be a part of world conspiracy to take over the world and put the entire world under a one-world socialist government and I agree with him. The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) is an organization of foreign policy experts, people concerned with international trade, prominent historians and writers, as well as others who are involved with foreign policy and international affairs. The CFR hold speaking events with question-and-answer periods which are usually televised on CSpan or other cable stations. The speakers are usually world leaders, historians, writers, or others involved in international affairs. Some of the speakers have included such figures as Nelson Mandela, George Soros, Thomas Friedman, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Ronald Reagan. The journal, which I have subscribed to and read for over 25 years (plus you can buy it at the newsstands in Borders or Barnes and Noble) provides a forum for contrasting views and opinions regarding issues affecting foreign policy.
Some people have made a nice living scarring others with conspiracy theories about the CFR. My advice to you is to go to the store, buy and read their journal, watch their events on CSpan, and be wary of people who wish to sell you on the idea that other people are out to get you. Colonel Clearwater________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colonel Clearwater: Cancel my subscription to your liberal rage.
And no matter how great the obstacles may seem, we must never stop our efforts to reduce the weapons of war.
We must never stop at all until we see the day when nuclear arms have been banished from the face of this earth." Ronald Wilson Reagan, 1984 Colonel ClearwaterDear Colonel Clearwater: Liberals? I realize that there is collateral damage in war, but this is no less than cold-blooded genocide. They were shooting at insurgents who, upon later investigation, turned out to be civilians.
By saying the soldiers were shooting civilans implies that they knew they were shooting civiliansj. The real guilty party are those who convinced the American public that this war was necessary and just. Can you tell me how the "Smallest of the World's Leading Newspapers" managed to scoop "Florida's Best Newspaper?" Pedro TechadorDear Pedro, Always nice to hear from one of the Techadors.This was a WikiLeak scoop. Palin:Your statement reminds me of what Republican Congressman, Devin Nunes said during the health care vote. And now you are bringing the ghosts back into this chamber." There is no polite way to get around this. Tea Party Patriots are morons when it comes to history, economics, and how to run a society. Much like the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan after World War I, the Tea Party Patriots are people who believe they have lost their privileged status in American society and wish to thwart others hopes for the American dream. Unfortunately, or fortunately (depending on which editor yells loudest) President Obama considers Wall Street, the banks, the Republicans in congress, and those with tea party policies as necessary players in the solution when they are, in fact, part of the problem.
Both the Senior Citizens' Right to Work Act and the Family Medical Leave Act were passed this way.



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