The corpses of individuals murdered by the NKVD (Soviet Secret Police) in the courtyard of a Lvov city prison. Entering terms in the main search box will return results where those terms occur anywhere in the record. Collections Search supports boolean queries including AND, NOT, and OR (which must be uppercase) and parentheses. Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, the NKVD (Soviet Secret Police) in Lvov began carrying out mass executions of prisoners in the jails on Kamierswska, Leona Spaieky, and Zamarstynowska streets before retreating into the USSR. In a world full of digital diversions, how are some people able to achieve a higher level of productivity than others? In the following book excerpt, Newport examines how Adam Grant, Wharton’s top-rated and youngest tenured professor, achieved an exceptionally high level of productivity that made him stand out among his distinguished peers.
Soon after meeting Grant, my own academic career on my mind, I couldn’t help but ask him about his productivity. Though Grant’s productivity depends on many factors, there’s one idea in particular that seems central to his method: the batching of hard but important intellectual work into long, uninterrupted stretches. My guess is that Adam Grant doesn’t work substantially more hours than the average professor at an elite research institution (generally speaking, this is a group prone to workaholism), but he still manages to produce more than just about anyone else in his field. If you believe this formula, then Grant’s habits make sense: By maximizing his intensity when he works, he maximizes the results he produces per unit of time spent working.
The example of Adam Grant implies that this intensity formula applies beyond just undergraduate GPA and is also relevant to other cognitively demanding tasks.
The problem this research identifies with this work strategy is that when you switch from some Task A to another Task B, your attention doesn’t immediately follow? — a residue of your attention remains stuck thinking about the original task.
Leroy studied the effect of this attention residue on performance by forcing task switches in the laboratory. The concept of attention residue helps explain why the intensity formula is true and therefore helps explain Grant’s productivity. Even if you’re unable to fully replicate Grant’s extreme isolation, the attention residue concept is still telling because it implies that the common habit of working in a state of semi-?distraction is potentially devastating to your performance. When we step back from these individual observations, we see a clear argument form: To produce at your peak level you need to work for extended periods with full concentration on a single task free from distraction. Please contact us for repurposing articles, podcasts, or videos using our content licensing contact form. The federal government’s move to switch to value-based pricing of drugs for one category of public health plans could potentially have far-reaching effects, say experts.
The case for electronic recycling has never been stronger, and the excuses for not doing it have never been thinner. Hear what CEOs, Wharton faculty, and other commentators have to say about the latest business trends, breaking news and market research in their own words.
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Often the same place is referred through different names in different languages and various spellings and transliterations. In the new book Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World, Georgetown University professor Cal Newport demonstrates how you can develop the skills necessary to focus at an optimum level and reach peak productivity.
When I met Grant in 2013, he was the youngest professor to be awarded tenure at The Wharton [School at the University of Pennsylvania]. Within the year, he stacks his teaching into the fall semester, during which he can turn all of his attention to teaching well and being available to his students. Within a semester dedicated to research, he alternates between periods where his door is open to students and colleagues, and periods where he isolates himself to focus completely and without distraction on a single research task.
It first came to my attention when I was researching my second book, How to Become a Straight-A Student, many years earlier. This residue gets especially thick if your work on Task A was unbounded and of low intensity before you switched, but even if you finish Task A before moving on, your attention remains divided for a while. In one such experiment, for example, she started her subjects working on a set of word puzzles. By working on a single hard task for a long time without switching, Grant minimizes the negative impact of attention residue from his other obligations, allowing him to maximize performance on this one task. If you’re not comfortable going deep for extended periods of time, it’ll be difficult to get your performance to the peak levels of quality and quantity increasingly necessary to thrive professionally.
For example, searching for "Lviv", "L'viv", "L'vov", "Lvov", "Lwow", or "Lemberg" will all bring you the same results. Learning how to do “deep work,” he argues, is among the most valuable skills people can learn, and carries wider implications for economic growth. A year later, when I started writing this chapter (and was just beginning to think about my own tenure process), the claim was updated: He’s now the youngest full professor at Wharton.
This is an absurdly high rate for his field (in which professors tend to work alone or in small professional collaborations and do not have large teams of students and postdocs to support their research).
In particular, by consolidating his work into intense and uninterrupted pulses, he’s leveraging the following law of productivity: High-Quality Work Produced = (Time Spent) x (Intensity of Focus). During that research process, I interviewed around 50 ultra-high-?scoring college undergraduates from some of the country’s most competitive schools. An interesting explanation comes from Sophie Leroy, a business professor at the University of Minnesota.
In one of the trials, she would interrupt them and tell them that they needed to move on to a new and challenging task, in this case, reading resumes and making hypothetical hiring decisions. When Grant is working for days in isolation on a paper, in other words, he’s doing so at a higher level of effectiveness than the standard professor following a more distracted strategy in which the work is repeatedly interrupted by residue-?slathering interruptions. Indeed, many justify this behavior as better than the old practice of leaving an inbox open on the screen at all times (a straw-?man habit that few follow anymore).
Unless your talent and skills absolutely dwarf those of your competition, the deep workers among them will outproduce you. But according to Wharton’s David Asch, those programs don't adequately deal with the human element.


He sent me, for example, a collection of PowerPoint slides from a workshop he attended with several other professors in his field. Something I noticed in these interviews is that the very best students often studied less than the group of students right below them on the GPA rankings.
In a 2009 paper titled intriguingly, ‘Why Is It So Hard to Do My Work?’, Leroy introduced an effect she called attention residue. I like the way that the models have been adapted from existing vehicle shells, adding on that Weird World War feeling for some superb miniatures.This will be available soon via the webstore.What do you reckon to this? The event was focused on data-?driven observations about how to produce academic work at an optimum rate. One of the explanations for this phenomenon turned out to be the formula detailed earlier: The best students understood the role intensity plays in productivity and therefore went out of their way to maximize their concentration?—?radically reducing the time required to prepare for tests or write papers, without diminishing the quality of their results. In the introduction to this paper, she noted that other researchers have studied the effect of multitasking? — ?trying to accomplish multiple tasks simultaneously?— ?on performance, but that in the modern knowledge work office, once you got to a high enough level, it was more common to find people working on multiple projects sequentially: “Going from one meeting to the next, starting to work on one project and soon after having to transition to another is just part of life in organizations,” Leroy explains. In between puzzling and hiring, she would deploy a quick lexical decision game to quantify the amount of residue left from the first task. He can be excused for this dip, however, because this same year he published a book titled Give and Take, which popularized some of his research on relationships in business. These slides included detailed pie charts of time allocation per season, a flowchart capturing relationship development with coauthors, and a suggested reading list with more than 20 titles. The results from this and her similar experiments were clear: “People experiencing attention residue after switching tasks are likely to demonstrate poor performance on that next task,” and the more intense the residue, the worse the performance.
Even worse, by seeing messages that you cannot deal with at the moment (which is almost always the case), you’ll be forced to turn back to the primary task with a secondary task left unfinished. These business professors do not live the cliche of the absentminded academic lost in books and occasionally stumbling on a big idea.
It ended up featured on the cover of The New York Times Magazine and went on to become a massive bestseller. They see productivity as a scientific problem to systematically solve? —? a goal Adam Grant seems to have achieved. When Grant was awarded full professorship in 2014, he had already written more than 60 peer-?reviewed publications in addition to his bestselling book. Log in to Reply moriarty 115p said: On August 16, 2012There is no soft ground during the hard Russian winter! Log in to Reply manpug 2913p said: On August 22, 2012That has to be the best reason to get one!



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