Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector. Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations. The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced.
It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones.
As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared). Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them. A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K.
As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales. The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts. The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials. Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view. Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found. Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia. In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) . In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102). It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period. To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes. Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy. Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path.
Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator. Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity.
In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description. Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance. The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side.
Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere.
We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down. Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist. We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust.
The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator.
Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions. The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions.
Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands. European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros. These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times.
Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below.
It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top. During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions. At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records. It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness.
These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world. But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib.
Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came. From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk. It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth. Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts. There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece. In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge. That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole. The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date.
The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge. Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe.
As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps. The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established.
In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe. Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps. The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography. The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied. Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess. Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire. When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence.
In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life. Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity. Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking.
The Byzantine Empire, though providing essential links in the chain, remains something of an enigma for the history of the long-term transmission of cartographic knowledge from the ancient to the modern world. It may be necessary to emphasize that the ancient Greek maps shown in this volume are a€?reconstructionsa€? by modern scholars based upon the textual descriptions of the general outline of the geographical systems formed by each of the successive Greek writers so far as it is possible to extract these from their writings alone.
China is Asiaa€™s oldest civilization, and the center from which cultural disciplines spread to the rest of the continent. An ancient wooden map discovered by Chinese archaeologists in northwest China's Gansu Province has been confirmed as the country's oldest one at an age of more than 2,200.
The map of Guixian was unearthed from tombs of the Qin Kingdom at Fangmatan in Tianshui City of Gansu Province in 1986 and was listed as a national treasure in 1994. Unlike modern maps, place names on these maps were written within big or small square frames, while the names of rivers, roads, major mountains, water systems and forested areas were marked directly with Chinese characters.
Whoever sets out to write on the history of geography in China faces a quandary, however, for while it is indispensable to give the reader some appreciation of the immense mass of literature which Chinese scholars have produced on the subject, it is necessary to avoid the tedium of listing names of authors and books, some of which indeed have long been lost.
As for the ideas about the shape of the earth current in ancient Chinese thought, the prevailing belief was that the heavens were round and the earth square.
The following attempts to compare rather carefully the parallel march of scientific geography in the West and in China. He had answers for that question, and they were very good, very eloquent ones, even as I abbreviate them here.
Sherlock Holmes was, he continued, a€?the personification of something in us that we have lost, or never had. I had read the Sherlock Holmes stories repeatedly for years before I first learned there was such a thing as the Baker Street Irregulars. I began to make many new friends when I joined the BSI in the early 1970s, in America, of course, and also in England and Canada, great English-speaking nations of the world. Then in 1979 I began to travel not only to England, but also other countries in my work at the Pentagon, and a secret of my professional life is that I always considered the Pentagon to be a personal extension of the National Endowment for the Humanities. So I arranged to meet some of the Sherlock Holmes Klubben members in Copenhagen during that visit, and others that followed in the 1980s.
I learned about The Cimbrian Friends of Baker Street, and we got together with Hanne and Aage Rieck-SA?rensen as well. In the process, I discovered that the Cimbrian Friends, along with other members of the Klubben in Copenhagen, were devotees of another addiction of mine, P.
That year, sooner than he had good reason to, Henry made me an honorary member of the Sherlock Holmes Klubben. So it meant a great deal to me, on my first visit to Aalborg, when he insisted upon adding me to his galleries of Sherlock Holmesa€™s and Dr. The second matter is a letter that I and six other American honorary Klubben members a€” Peter Blau, Ron De Waal, Bill Rabe, Ted Schulz, John Bennett Shaw, and Julian Wolff a€” sent Henry for his 80th birthday in 1988, after he had announced his retirement as Klubben president at the previous Januarya€™s dinner in Copenhagen.
In his reply, he said he knew I had written the letter, and it warmed my heart to know he realized that. And I hope The Cimbrian Friends have archives, because I want to donate these letters to and from and about Henry to them. The last thing I want to recall, because nothing has ever taken their place, were the books Henry created and sent to his friends every Christmas a€” beautiful chapbooks that he took great pains over, about not only Sherlock Holmes but many other interests of his as well, like tobacco, and horse-racing, and of course Wodehousea€™s characters and stories. When I first attended the BSI annual dinner in New York in 1973, the custom of Standing upon the Terrace was new to me.
It was Christopher Morley who first made explicit that aspect of our pastime, in 1944 in the sub-title he gave to a new book of his, Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Yet something else besides Victoriana was on his mind: a reflection about the essential nature of the Sherlock Holmes stories, prompting him to give his book the sub-title A Textbook of Friendship. Not long ago I needed to deal with this issue of friendship, as applies to Sherlockians themselves, in an historical novel about the Baker Street Irregulars that will be published this autumn.
Thank you very much, and God bless the Cimbrian Friends of Baker Street and the memory of our dear friend Henry Lauritzen. A A A  Sherlock Holmes was, he continued, a€?the personification of something in us that we have lost, or never had.
A A A  I began to make many new friends when I joined the BSI in the early 1970s, in America, of course, and also in England and Canada, great English-speaking nations of the world.
A A A  Then in 1979 I began to travel not only to England, but also other countries in my work at the Pentagon, and a secret of my professional life is that I always considered the Pentagon to be a personal extension of the National Endowment for the Humanities. A A A  I learned about The Cimbrian Friends of Baker Street, and we got together with Hanne and Aage Rieck-SA?rensen as well. A A A  In the process, I discovered that the Cimbrian Friends, along with other members of the Klubben in Copenhagen, were devotees of another addiction of mine, P.
A A A  That year, sooner than he had good reason to, Henry made me an honorary member of the Sherlock Holmes Klubben. A A A  So it meant a great deal to me, on my first visit to Aalborg, when he insisted upon adding me to his galleries of Sherlock Holmesa€™s and Dr. A A A  The second matter is a letter that I and six other American honorary Klubben members a€” Peter Blau, Ron De Waal, Bill Rabe, Ted Schulz, John Bennett Shaw, and Julian Wolff a€” sent Henry for his 80th birthday in 1988, after he had announced his retirement as Klubben president at the previous Januarya€™s dinner in Copenhagen.
A A A  In his reply, he said he knew I had written the letter, and it warmed my heart to know he realized that. A A A  And I hope The Cimbrian Friends have archives, because I want to donate these letters to and from and about Henry to them.
A A A  The last thing I want to recall, because nothing has ever taken their place, were the books Henry created and sent to his friends every Christmas a€” beautiful chapbooks that he took great pains over, about not only Sherlock Holmes but many other interests of his as well, like tobacco, and horse-racing, and of course Wodehousea€™s characters and stories. A A A  When I first attended the BSI annual dinner in New York in 1973, the custom of Standing upon the Terrace was new to me. A A A  It was Christopher Morley who first made explicit that aspect of our pastime, in 1944 in the sub-title he gave to a new book of his, Sherlock Holmes and Dr. A A A  Yet something else besides Victoriana was on his mind: a reflection about the essential nature of the Sherlock Holmes stories, prompting him to give his book the sub-title A Textbook of Friendship.
A A A  Not long ago I needed to deal with this issue of friendship, as applies to Sherlockians themselves, in an historical novel about the Baker Street Irregulars that will be published this autumn. A A A  Thank you very much, and God bless the Cimbrian Friends of Baker Street and the memory of our dear friend Henry Lauritzen. Donald Trump’s surprising rise and popularity and the equally surprising durability of Bernie Sanders, an openly “socialist” candidate for a major party nomination, are both opposite responses to the collapsing historic American social compact. It is also an indication that the forces that the GOP has so happily been courting for so long – those who tend to live in trailer parks with no more than a high school education and who love their Jesus – have found their voice, unadorned by any subtleties or coded language, just straight-up belligerence and open bigotry in Donald Trump whose rise to prominence has been wholly due to his venting the politics of resentment without apology.
The answer is D, if you want to give Peyton Manning his 200th career win and frustrate your own team that has won all but one of its games this season going into the Super Bowl and were 17-1 counting the end of last season. This has to be as an overall offensive game plan, the most offensive game plan I have ever seen, equal in bone-headedness only to the worse single play-call in last year's Super Bowl by the Seattle Seahawks' offensive co-ordinator at the end. Is this a widespread belief because millions of people have studied this question, looking at history and economic and political systems over the span of human societies’ existence and all arrived at the same conclusion after painstaking study and specialized training in the tools of social science? We are social creatures so as a rule we usually try to stay within a group – with there being natural variation along a spectrum for this norm - because being away from the group is not comfortable for most people most of the time and can cause us to literally die under some circumstances. It’s not in the interest of the current system that you find out how the political system really operates and it’s not in their interest that you find out what’s true in many arenas in life. As someone who regularly interacts with students and others about political power and so on, if I had a dollar for every time I've heard this sentiment cited at the beginning .
Let's first look at the question of the alleged invincibility of the ones in power and the supposed perpetuity of the system they govern. A political scientist named Ivan Arreguin-Toft compiled the data a few years ago by looking at lopsided wars over the last two hundred years. After Paris and now San Bernardino, the world wants to know: how do you stop this cycle of violence?
World leaders want you to think that the only thing going on is these terrible acts of (anti-state) terrorism and they want the public to endorse their “war on terror” (state terror) which is like drinking more poison from the poison bottle that made you sick in the first place. The current war in Iraq will generate a ferocious blowback of its own, which -- as a recent classified CIA assessment predicts -- could be longer and more powerful than that from Afghanistan. If the Devil is God's adversary - whom the Bible tells us he is, his polar opposite - why doesn't the Devil reward people instead of punishing them for sinning against God? Why is the Devil doing God's work by punishing people for defying God and for following the Devil?
What's Hell anyway but a cudgel for believers in God to use to warn people against sinning? Everyone in the world knows, including in this country, that the US is the sole superpower. What everyone does not know, most especially those in this country, is what exactly being a superpower entails.
The simplest way to put this - and the way that members of the pundit class have increasingly openly admitted in the last fifteen years or so - is that the US in an Empire. One comment that regularly comes up from at least some students during my sociology classes at some point is some variant on this statement: "It's human nature and that’s why we have social problems. This is so common an idea and taken for granted as so well understood and true that nobody has to bother to try to justify it. In what has to be a completely unprecedented turn of events, Congressional Republicans are complaining that intelligence assessments of Islamic State's strength are being downplayed by the Obama Administration. And intelligence analysts are feeling pressure to toe the official administration line that Islamic State is being degraded.
Author's note: Tonight is the Academy Awards and the film American Sniper is up for possible Oscars. So even though that lie has been made public since the invasion (a lie that some of us tried to warn people about before the invasion, but mass media refused to give that information to the country), many people still can't think straight enough to realize that American Sniper is about a killer who deserves condemnation, not praise. In dishonor of tonight's expected touting of this war crime of a movie, I am reprinting an analysis that I posted on January 8, 2010 after the Nigerian student Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab unsuccessfully tried to blow up his boxer briefs on a Northwest Airlines flight from Amsterdam to Detroit on Xmas Day, 2010.
People should remember this when they hear the "one story" told by police officers and vigilantes like George Zimmerman, relating their sole accounts of why they just had to shot to death their black or brown victims, making certain there are not surviving victims to tell a radically different story.
John Yoo, principal author of the Office of Legal Counsel’s “Torture Memos” that gave the green light to the CIA and other governmental agencies to carry out torture under Bush, has this week surprisingly distanced himself from some of the torture techniques, saying on Fareed Zakaria’s CNN show on December 11, 2014 that if the Senate’s Torture Report accounts are true, that the CIA was acting outside of the Justice Department’s authorization and could be prosecutable for that.
Yoo, as those who follow these things know, has been an unabashed proponent of torture and so his sudden discovery of the law and a conscience seems startling. The first article of this series’ main point was that the unjust and murderous actions of officers such as Pantaleo and Wilson are not aberrations but in fact a logical outgrowth of, entirely consistent with, inspired by, and necessary corollaries to, US governmental policies, both here and abroad. Consider the rationale for the so-called “war on terror” and the invasions and occupations of numerous countries, such as Iraq and Afghanistan. All of these acts have been and are being carried out under the official rationale of “protecting American lives” by torturing and killing very large numbers of people. If authorities were to do anything that would in any way cause the police to feel that they did not have complete license to constantly harass, brutalize, and kill, then this system could not continue. The nature of economic and political power today under neoliberal regimes is so outrageously unfair, unjust, cold-blooded, deceitful, destructive, murderous, and belligerent, and becoming more so with every passing week, the only way to hold back the flood of outrage that has finally been unleashed against it is to continue to use repression on an even grander scale than that which unleashed this storm of resistance and disgust in the first place. Ask yourself, why would the government blatantly uphold the obvious crime committed by Daniel Pantaleo who choked Eric Garner to death in front of the camera while Eric pleaded that he could not breathe over and over until he was suffocated? Authorities certainly did not anticipate that they were opening the floodgates by issuing this non-indictment in the immediate aftermath of the fury and protest of so many to Ferguson.
But they also could not afford to slap Pantaleo on the wrist because Pantaleo was doing exactly what the police have been training to do. I trust that the police will do their best to harass and kill black (and brown) people whenever they see an opportunity. So in spite of the fact that the NYPD officer who killed Eric Garner did so with an illegal chokehold (by the NYPD's own standards) and despite the fact that the official coroner's report ruled Eric's death a "homicide," the grand jury has found no cause to indict Eric's murderer, Daniel Pantaleo. Can there be any more obvious case of someone who has been unjustly killed by a police officer? As a colleague of mine put it in making this point to me recently, this would be like her going into class and saying “I’m sorry, I just can’t give a lecture.” This is her job. This is, of course, a conclusion that you will hear from almost none of those who are commenting on this case in mainstream media. Many years ago when a group of political activists (dubbed in the press the “Mao Zedong Defendants”) were arrested and put on trial for allegedly attacking a large group of police officers, I sat in the courtroom in Honolulu State Court on the defendants’ bench and listened with fascination at the parade of cops telling their version of the events of that day of our arrests. I was fascinated by it because the cops’ accounts were a) all entirely consistent with each other, with not a single detail in any degree at variance or in contradiction to the others’ details (multiple eyewitness testimony is never entirely consistent when they're trying to tell the truth given the vagaries of individuals' observations and memories), and b) very vivid descriptions of how powerful my comrades were, two-thirds of them Asian females no taller than 5’ 1” tall and less than 100 pounds a piece, since according to these officers of the law, the officers had all been victims of a brutal assault by these Amazons. To underscore how powerful and fierce my female activists must have been, the cops were to a man, at least 6' tall and weighed no less than 200 pounds a piece. Officer Wilson, why did you shoot and kill Michael Brown, when he had his hands up and was telling you he gives up, why did you have to shoot him six times? Some people find it unremarkable that Missouri Governor Jay Nixon has called out the National Guard, declaring a state of emergeny, prior to a grand jury's decision about whether or not to indict officer Darren Wilson for killing Michael Brown in Ferguson, MO. I find it remarkable that some people don't find the calling out of the National Guard to be outrageous. Upon hearing that Missouri's governor Jay Nixon has today called upon the National Guard, declaring a state of emergency for Ferguson and St.
The following excerpt is from a NYT Op-Ed entitled "Pregnant, and No Civil Rights" by Lynn Paltrow and Jeanne Flavin, published on November 7, 2014. In Iowa, a pregnant woman who fell down a flight of stairs was reported to the police after seeking help at a hospital. The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change on Sunday, November 1, 2014, issued its starkest warning to date. Failure to reduce emissions, the group of scientists and other experts found, could threaten society with food shortages, refugee crises, the flooding of major cities and entire island nations, mass extinction of plants and animals, and a climate so drastically altered it might become dangerous for people to work or play outside during the hottest times of the year. This is a transcript of Dennis Loo’s prepared remarks at a Cal Poly Pomona Symposium on Stop Mass Incarceration, Police Repression and the Criminalization of a Generation on the evening of October 21, 2014.
Michelle Alexander, the author of The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, recounts at the beginning of her book that when she first began working as a civil rights attorney over a decade ago, the prevailing view was that the battle for civil rights had essentially been won and that the main battlefront in defending those gains was in affirmative action cases and so on, a view that matched her own attitude at the time. Two health workers at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital where Liberian Thomas Eric Duncan was treated and died from Ebola have now tested positive for Ebola. When Pham came down with Ebola, officials initially blamed her for not following proper procedures. As this article (“Health workers need optimal respiratory protection for Ebola”) by national respiratory protection and infectious disease experts Lisa Brosseau, SCD, and Rachael Jones, PhD, published in the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy on September 17, 2014, makes clear, however, Ebola can be transmitted through facemasks by being aerosolized through coughing, sneezing, or even, we should assume, breathing by an infected person. The police say that Myers and several friends ran when the off duty cop tried to make “a pedestrian stop” on them and that Myers shot at the cop first. Why does an off-duty cop feel like he can be making “pedestrian stops” of Black youth while he's moonlighting as a security guard?
Comparisons are meaningless at this level of evil, as are attempts to explain the horror by delving into the psychology or rationale of the perpetrators. However, to throw up one’s hands and claim that trying to understand what’s generating such a group’s horrors is impossible to do, and to claim that calling their acts “crimes against humanity” is to put a “legalistic spin on raw evil,” is a form of raw stupidity.
If we want to do something about ISIS, then we need to ask ourselves what is causing ISIS in the first place. ISIS and al-Qaeda are the bitter fruit of the US invasions and occupations of Iraq and Afghanistan. Let us assume, for the sake of argument, that the US government's claims are true that its airstrikes on Syria killed eight leaders of the Khorasan Group, an al-Qaeda offshoot, thus foiling an "imminent attack” on the US homeland. Even if a) Khorasan was in fact planning an “imminent” attack and b) their key leaders were killed, exactly how did this decapitation stop that “imminent” attack (and especially, future ones)?
This question - “who are you to say?” - gets posed, either explicitly or implicitly, fairly frequently by at least some, if not many, people in retort to those who seek to lead others in political change. In the US where individualism and “personal choice” are highly valued by the dominant (mass) culture, the idea that anyone would challenge the notion that everyone’s opinions are all equally valid – or at least, depending upon what company you keep, the views that are most common among your chosen political persuasion - strikes many people as at best rude and at worst the views of someone you should avoid. Since Earth’s creation, no natural threats to its existence compare to the danger that it now faces from climate change, caused by human activity. Gigantic meteors have struck the earth and volcanoes have spewed out enormous amounts of smoke and ash that dramatically altered the landscape and deeply impacted the flora and fauna, and perhaps caused the massive die off of dinosaurs … but they are not as grave a threat to the existence of Earth now confronting us. Nuclear winter, a threat during the Cold War between the US and the Soviet Union that could have been catastrophic had it happened, is arguably less of a threat than climate change. Editor's note: Alice Walker - on her own initiative - penned this poem in honor of Carl Dix and Cornel West, calling forth others to join in this October's Month of Resistance to Mass Incarceration, Police Terror, Repression, and the Criminalization of a Generation.
As I pointed out in the first part of this series, the US inadvertently created ISIS, a nightmare that Obama is now feverishly trying to, but will be unable to, wake up from. I am going to make this very short because I have previously written on this case extensively, both in articles and in the comments threads, especially in the thread after my first article on this.
The judge has ruled that Pistorius committed "culpable homicide" and that he did not know that he was shooting his girlfriend as he was doing it.


For Judge Thokozile Masipa to find that Pistorius did not know that he was shooting Reeva Steenkamp to death requires that the judge overlook not only all the very damning testimony and evidence presented, not only Pistorius' ever-changing, contradictory, and self-convicting affidavit and testimony, including his absurd claim that he did not check to see if Reeva was in the bed before he got up to see about the "intruder," she must specifically overlook the fact that Reeva was screaming - so loudly that neighbors heard it - continuously while Oscar proceeded to shoot her four times. I say this not because the US government set out to create ISIS and had a hand via covert intel in bringing it into being. Grave crimes and injustices produce two kinds of responses from those victimized by those crimes.
On the one hand, it sensitizes people to oppression and makes many of them more likely to oppose oppression. On the other hand, some victims or witnesses to oppression identify with the oppressors rather than with the oppressed.
In this second case, victims to injustice seek to avoid being oppressed ever again by becoming oppressors themselves: “Better to be the oppressor than be one of the oppressed,” they think. Prisons, for example, contain a group of people referred to as “trustees” who are prisoners who help the guards police and patrol the prisoners, without which the guards would need far more guards to control the prison population.
Contrary to much of the media coverage of Ferguson, the issue here isn't whether the protests are "peaceful" or not.
These are the words of arrogant racists who think – no, know – that the whole edifice of racism backs them up. It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals. A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them.
Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation.
Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history. Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps. In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store. When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time.
Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others. Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training. Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art.
It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch.
It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness.
There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic. In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C. In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213. The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India. Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C. Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther. We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological.
It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period. Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era.
Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported.
This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death. The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one. A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained. The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years. There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole. Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man. The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre.
These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207). The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance. This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps. The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest. In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328). The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass. According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense.
We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion. Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ. That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii.
That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race).
That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c. That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents. The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps. To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps. We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought.
In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice. Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth. With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general. Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge. In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed. While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves.
Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge. Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions. By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean.
While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences. The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps. Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries. A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping. In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium.
In both Western Europe and Byzantium relatively little that was new in cartography developed during the Dark Ages and early Middle Ages, although monks were assiduously copying out and preserving the written work of many past centuries available to them. Researcher He said that the map, drawn in black on four pine wood plates of almost the same size, had clear and complete graphics depicting the administrative division, a general picture of local geography and the economic situation in Guixian County in the Warring States era. Only a few examples can be given, but it should be understood, even when it is not expressly said, that they must often stand simply as representative of a whole class of works. It may be said at the outset that both in East and West there seem to have been two separate traditions, one which we may call a€?scientific, or quantitative, cartographya€™, and one which we may call a€?religious, or symbolic, cosmographya€™.
I fear my remarks will be very personal ones, for when I thought about what to say after Jens Byskov Jensen was kind enough to invite me to be tonighta€™s speaker, I was flooded with memories of past visits here, and what they have long meant to me.
Smith, then and still the best and wisest man the Baker Street Irregulars have ever known, wrote an editorial called a€?The Implicit Holmesa€? for the brand-new Baker Street Journal.
And I still remember the excitement of that discovery a€” that there were others as besotted with the Sherlock Holmes stories as I was. It made sense to me that societies raised in the English language, rooted in English common law, and sharing the British literary heritage, would find common ground in the Sherlock Holmes stories. I spent a good deal of time with Niels-Jorgen Haagerup, with whom I had a professional as well as a literary link. I had Pentagon business at NATOa€™s Baltic Approaches Headquarters in Karup, and to me it seemed perfectly reasonable to stay in Aalborg, a scant 112 kilometers away. This was a long time ago, that first visit in 1980 a€” thirty years ago, but I am still enchanted by my memories of that visit. Hea€™d sent the Klubben a subsequent letter saying that henceforth he would take it easy at the Klubbena€™s dinners and meetings, and perhaps enjoy an extra cigar and an extra drink.
But while it had been my privilege and honor to write it, it expressed the view of all seven of us: in fact initially eight, but Bliss Austin a€” a prince of the realm if ever the Baker Street Irregulars have had one a€” had died before Henrya€™s birthday came round. They belong here, to be preserved for the benefit of those to come who did not have the good fortune to know him.
These books took time, effort, care, and expense to produce, each one was a different facet of his personality, they were greatly valued by all who received them, and nothing has ever taken their place in the hearts of those fortunate enough to count Henry Lauritzen as a friend. A young man in 1934 has met the Irregulars, and badly wants to be one, but confesses to Christopher Morley that he doesna€™t know the Canon as well as Morley and his friends.
I could put those words in his mouth in good conscience because I knew he had felt that way, and because I knew them to be true myself.
I had Pentagon business at NATOa€™s Baltic Approaches Headquarters in Karup, and to me it seemed perfectly reasonable to stay in Aalborg, a scant 112 kilometers away.A  Karup had the NATO HQ, but Aalborg had Henry Lauritzen.
They will kill many people, both those they are explicitly targeting in ISIS and innocents who they are inevitably going to be mostly killing, and destroy infrastructure that supports people's lives on the ground, and this will produce some losses to ISIS. But even with a half-black POTUS, and with more black faces in charge of major institutions such as the Attorney General’s Office, racism is getting worse, with more blacks dying at cops’ hands than they were being lynched during the height of the KKK’s reign of terror.
But in order to see things clearly and correctly, this frequently means that you have to be willing to stand outside of the prevailing norm.
You have to fight very hard and against the grain to learn the truth and then you have to try to get others to see what’s true, which is also difficult because what you’re telling them goes against what they have been told so often and by so many for so long. Malcolm Gladwell in David and Goliath: Underdogs, Misfits, and the Art of Battling Giants cites Arreguin-Toft’s data. Hardly a recipe that conforms to what the majority of people believe so emphatically that they would call the victory of a superior force a slam dunk. But it’s like walking into a movie 45 minutes after it started and trying to figure out what’s going on without knowing how what’s going on got triggered in the first place. If you are a sinner, according to the Christian faith, then why do you go to Hell and eternal fire and suffering, presided over by Satan with great delight?
If you do the Devil's bidding and do as he recommends, then why should the Devil then punish you for doing what he asks you to do, unless, of course, the Devil is a device invented in the Bible as an enforcer of God's will, and merely pretending to be an adversary of God? People are naturally selfish, greedy and violent." This is something that you can hear someone in the street or other setting state very readily and with great assurance in their voices that what they're saying is as true as the sky is blue.
It's remarkable that such a stupid film that celebrates an American soldier for killing scores of people in Iraq and in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, could be so lauded. All you would have to do to wake some of these impressionable people up, however, is to ask them a simple question: What the hell is the US doing in Iraq in the first place?
It brings up the truth about this big lie called the "war on terror" and how it actually creates anti-state terrorists such as ISIL.
He famously stated in a public debate on December 1, 2005, for example, that if POTUS ordered a boy’s testicles to be crushed in order to extract information from his father, that this would be acceptable if POTUS was doing it to protect the US. Well over a million Iraqis alone have died since our unjust and illegal invasion of their country based on a lie. If it’s to save American lives, then anything is justified, even massive crimes routinely committed against innocents. To sanction Pantaleo is to make a mockery of what they have been directing and socializing their police force to do. Grand juries are the instrument of prosecutors, so this decision is really the prosecutor's decision not to find any reason to try Pantaleo. Instead, you will hear again and again that police officers are trained to use their guns to kill if they use them at all and that the presumption under the law in Missouri and in general is always if the police used deadly force that they must have felt threatened enough to kill.
It must be the intense study sessions of revolutionary science that my fellow activists spent so much time on because they had behemoth-like powers against these poor, defenseless officers of the law. Their view points to a) an inadequate understanding of what civil liberties are, and b) a faulty understanding of what is in play in Ferguson. Health care providers believed that the stillbirth was the result of the woman’s decision to delay having a cesarean.
The Drug War was indeed the New Jim Crow, a way of rendering black and brown people to a permanent second-class caste status, robbed of their rights, deprived of any housing assistance, the right to vote and serve on a jury, condemned to filling out job apps that asked the inevitable question that ruled you out of employment “have you ever been convicted of a felony?” all without being blatantly racist. Hospital spokespeople expressed astonishment that first nurse Nina Pham and now a so-far unidentified health care worker contracted Ebola, despite wearing facemasks, gowns, gloves, et al, as per their supervisors’ instructions and CDC protocols.
A strikingly similar sequence of events has occurred in Spain, with two nurses coming down with Ebola who were following the instructions they were given, with government spokesmen initially blaming the nurses - and then in response to angry protest, retracting their pompous blaming - for the nurses' contracting the disease. This killing and the story the police are using to justify it reflect how Black people are criminalized in this society. Even to call what this group does “crimes against humanity” is to put a legalistic spin on raw evil; as Roger Cohen, the New York Times columnist, wrote in a recent piece about ISIS, there is no “why” in the heart of darkness. In the Nazi concentration camps there were Jews who, in exchange for temporarily at least being saved from execution, facilitated in their fellow camp residents being sent to their deaths.
The issue is whether or not the police will be allowed to continue to get away with cold bloodedly executing black people (and others).
These are the words of racist pigs who know that they can get away with murdering those treated as no better than dirt by the police and by the justice system.
Seems either no one is talking about louis daguerre at this moment on GOOGLE-PLUS or the GOOGLE-PLUS service is congested. They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment. Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?. In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals.
Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse. The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist. A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes. Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships. But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive. The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period. Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms. The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries. From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties.
We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus. In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work. But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven. On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan.
Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors.
Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated.
Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them.
Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra. Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire. John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor. In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions. In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps.
Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged.
Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella. Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world. Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation. It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena. On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places.
To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society. Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence. Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections.
Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance.
Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions. When we come to consider the mapping of small areas in medieval western Europe, it will be shown that the Saint Gall monastery map is very reminiscent of the best Roman large-scale plans. Some maps, along with other illustrations, were transmitted by this process, but too few have survived to indicate the overall level of cartographic awareness in Byzantine society. Eighty-two places are marked with their respective names, locations of rivers, mountains and forested areas on the map. Experts said that graphics, symbols, scales, locations, longitude and latitude are key elements of a map. Thus in the Ta Tai Li Chi, Tseng Shen, replying to the questions of Shanchu Li, admits that it was very hard to see how, on the orthodox view, the four comers of the earth could be properly covered.
It was longer still before I read those words of Edgar Smitha€™s, but they remain as true for me today, decades later, as they were the first time I read them. Ita€™s true that Sir Arthur Conan Doyle had been notably deficient in appreciating Sherlock Holmes, but what did he know? I liked Kristian Hasle Cordtz, whose recent death I was startled to learn of, from the last issue of Sherlockiana, and I was positively charmed by his elderly and courtly father Eigil Cordtz.
I dona€™t remember a thing about the BALTAP part of it, except that one or two more visits there seemed called for, during the next few years, always staying in Aalborg, of course.
But I appreciate receiving Sherlockiana even if I dona€™t read Danish: it reminds me, each time an issue arrives, of both absent friends and the universality of Sherlock Holmes. I used one of his caricatures of me on my personal stationery for years, until its striking resemblance fell victim to my increasing years, expanding waistline, and thinning hair.
Our letter congratulating him upon his birthday was accompanied by the best box of cigars and best bottle of cognac our agents in Denmark could buy, for Henry with our compliments and love a€” perishable gestures of an imperishable affection for him. Irregulars Stand upon the Terrace for many comrades, but there have not been many who meant as much as Henry did. Having lost friends along the way, I am glad to return to Aalborg to see the Rieck-SA?rensens again. It was the first of his many books to be entirely devoted to Sherlock Holmes, and the first attempt by anyone to annotate the Canon for readers less familiar with the Victorian era, which must have seemed very distant in that fateful year of the Second World War. A moviea€™s other positive qualities dona€™t compensate very much, as far as wea€™re concerned, if it gets the Holmes-Watson relationship wrong. When the Sherlock Holmes stories seize someone this way, ita€™s because they speak to his fundamental values and ideal of friendship.
I knew that because I have seen that Irregular friendship at work around me, and felt it myself, for forty years now. Ia€™m glad to be able to speak to you about Henry Lauritzen, my friend still even though long departed.
And Henry was everything I could have hoped for, devoted to Sherlock Holmes, welcoming to all who shared that devotion, utterly charming, and hospitable to a fault. It makes helpful viewing now in the wake of the Brussels' terrorist attacks and the call by our government for more of the very same policies - state terror - that spawned these terrorist attacks and the birth of ISIS themselves.
Truth is not a simple thing to obtain and it usually involves a personal cost exacted for its acquisition. This is even more the case if they are among those who actually benefit from the status quo. What prompts me breaking my lengthy silence is an article that appears this month at the Harvard Political Review entitled "The Last Maoists of Cambridge." A month ago, the author, Gram Slattery, while preparing his article, approached me via email.
How would you feel as an American if Iraq's army had invaded us fourteen years ago, after claiming that because we had weapons of mass destruction that we were a threat to them and that they had to invade and kill over a million Americans to prevent the "greater evil?" How would you feel if an Iraqi Sniper killed scores of Americans while occupying America who openly wished he had killed more American "savages"? It was disgusting." One can either credit these allegations, or believe that three [black] NYPD officers conspired to lie under oath. Yoo needs to explain how crushing a boy’s testicles is better than sodomy with hummus, keeping detainees awake for up to seven days (a sure technique for driving someone literally mad), putting people into coffin boxes for protracted periods of time, and waterboarding people until they are unconscious and had to be revived.
Eric Garner was subjected to Pantaleo's chokehold for the "crime" of selling cigarettes in the streets.


Handling physical altercations and conflict is what cops are supposedly trained explicitly to do without always resorting to unnecessary or disproportionate, including lethal, force.
Louis Mayor James Knowles III, and by the FBI, to intimidate and suppress any prospective demonstrations, is based upon their clear expectations that the grand jury's verdict will be to exonerate Wilson's shooting Brown to death.
One day short of 2 months after the police murder of Michael Brown, another Black life is stolen. Witnesses to the incident say Myers was unarmed, that he had just bought a sandwich and that’s all he had in his hands when he was chased and gunned down. Some Black youth walking together are suspicious and need to be jacked up by a cop, even if the cop is off duty. If you attack a disease without knowing what’s causing it, then you could – and in this case will - accelerate rather than curb the disease. What Obama is doing in ordering relentless airstrikes in Syria and Iraq is fueling ISIS, not damaging it.
Who are you to say that climate change is a dire emergency and not a hoax or an exaggerated response to “adverse” weather? When the Japanese imperialists invaded China in the 1930s there were some Chinese who sided with the Japanese invaders and sold out their own people. This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time.
The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction.
After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text. Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns. They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on. The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy. The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period. They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope.
The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes. We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science. With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens.
Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained. Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean. Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt. Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period. Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret.
The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration. In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors. Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances. If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps.
This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators. While almost certainly fewer maps were made than in the Greco-Roman Period, nevertheless the key concepts of mapping that had been developed in the classical world were preserved in the Byzantine Empire. What is more surprising is that the map marks the location of Wei Shui, now known as the Weihe River, and many canyons in the area.
The map of Guixian County has all these elements except longitude and latitude, according to historians. The Sherlock Holmes stories are immortal, and the sentiments they arouse in us are what Smith said a€” timeless, and imperishable.
This was a fairly new one for me, but one of long standing for Henry and Aage, and to Bjarne and Niels-Jorgen in Copenhagen, and no doubt others. I have not only my Klubben membership card signed by Henry in 1980, but a second one he gave me so I could mount them together, front and back, as you see here. I used another in this 1980 article for Baker Street Miscellanea called a€?Sherlocki?? Holmes in Scandinavia,a€? which also included Henrya€™s caricatures of Aage here in Aalborg, Nils Nordberg in Oslo, Ted Bergman in Stockholm, and Henry himself a€” not to mention his colophon for The Cimbrian Friends of Baker Street.
Eventually one Stands upon the Terrace for people we have come to know, then soon for people wea€™ve come to consider friends, and eventually for people wea€™ve come to love.
Nigel Bruce was a likeable old dodderer, and might be all right for the great unobservant public, who can hardly tell a weaver by his tooth or a compositor by his left thumb, but he was not the Canona€™s Watson, no matter how good a Sherlock Holmes Basil Rathbone made. Irregular friendships, drawn from the priceless, timeless one between Sherlock Holmes and John H. I used another in this 1980 article for Baker Street Miscellanea called a€?Sherlock Holmes in Scandinavia,a€? which also included Henrya€™s caricatures of Aage here in Aalborg, Nils Nordberg in Oslo, Ted Bergman in Stockholm, and Henry himself a€” not to mention his colophon for The Cimbrian Friends of Baker Street.
In other words, the US government wants to drown the raging fire by pouring more gasoline on the fire they created in the first place!
If they are among that group of people, it is extremely hard and, in many instances, impossible to convince people of what’s true if what’s true goes against their personal interests.
Not only do I hear it incessantly, it's boring to hear this tired nostrum, spoken with the assurance of absolute certainty!
Wouldn't Satan, who supposedly opposes God, make Hell into a pleasurable afterlife, rewarding those who have followed the Devil's evil ways, rather than giving them everlasting damnation?
He wanted to know why I was one of those who signed a statement in support of people engaging the works of Bob Avakian.
Eric Garner's real crime in the eyes of this system, however, was the crime of being black. If, as my colleague further went on to point out, Wilson was indeed being physically assaulted by Brown while in the driver's seat of his police car while the car was running, then all he had to do is step on the gas pedal.
People gathered at the scene of the murder to protest it within minutes and soon the crowd had grown to several hundred angry people.
This is like the Black Codes that southern states, including Missouri, enforced during the days of slavery which gave whites the power to break up any gatherings of 3 or more Black people.
As virulent as ISIS is, it will grow under the US air strikes the way that a fire rises ever higher and hotter if you try to drown it by pouring gasoline on it.
Al-Qaeda in turn was created by the US's policies in Afghanistan when the Russians were occupying Afghanistan in the 1980s. Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making. All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times. He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing.
Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents.
Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts. However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca.
From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II. There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed. Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od.
Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on. The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase. Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e.
At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth. In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive. Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres]. And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world. It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands. On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping.
Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes.
This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade. 90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition. The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography. Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history.
However, the maps of Marinus and Ptolemy, one of the latter containing thousands of place-names, were at least partly known to Arabic geographers of the ninth to the 10th century. The most accomplished Byzantine map to survive, the mosaic at Madaba (#121), is clearly closer to the classical tradition than to maps of any subsequent period.
He Shuangquan, a research fellow with the Gansu Provincial Archaeological Research Institute, has made an in-depth study of the map and confirmed its drawing time to be 239 B.C. I knew there was a big Sherlock Holmes following in Scandinavia, and I also knew the liona€™s share of it was in Denmark.
They had Sherlock Holmes collections, of course a€” Aagea€™s particularly impressive one included obscure items I wouldna€™t have guessed had ever found their way out of the United States.
People throughout the Sherlockian world today recognize and prize Henrya€™s work, and I think always shall. It is a bittersweet thing, year by year, making you realize that we are part of a great procession of men and women who have at the very least one thing in common, but that that is a very great and wise thing: we all perceive something special in the Sherlock Holmes stories, and not only in them, but in each other.
Nothing in our lives since a€” careers, experience of war, occasionally crushing family responsibilities a€” effaces the memory of boyhood wonder and delight. This was a full page ad that ran in The New York Review of Books in 2008 entitled: "Dangerous times demand courageous voices.
And hence, he could be murdered by those licensed killers who wear badges, without any consequences. The ocean is acidifying and in danger of being unable to sustain life within a mere few decades, for a third. A resident whose son had been with Myers on Wednesday night said, "They have been harassing him all day like they do all the time, pulling him over, stopping him." "That's how it is. The initial form of al-Qaeda was the mujahideen, which the US government funded and supported, as a counter to the Russian occupation. There will ever and always be people who will exchange solidarity for personal comfort, even if that comfort at times is triflingly small. Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made. It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem.
I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia. This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map. It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era.
The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making. See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes.
Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands. Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research. Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions. By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions. The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents. From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic. Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction. The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps. There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice.
With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century. It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration. Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property.
But the transmission of Ptolemya€™s Geography to the West came about first through reconstruction by Byzantine scholars and only second through its translation into Latin (1406) and its diffusion in Florence and elsewhere. But as the dichotomy increased between the use of Greek in the East and Latin in the West, the particular role of Byzantine scholars in perpetuating Greek texts of cartographic interest becomes clearer. Forested areas marked on the map also tallies with the distribution of various plants and the natural environment in the area today.
I know he enjoyed drawing Sherlock Holmes subjects, but he never hesitated when asked to do one or two, or even more, for somebody else. The principle was as true then, and as true now, as it was in 1944 for Morley, in a world and time far more fractured and troubled than todaya€™s. Our devotion to that body of timeless, imperishable literature is an expression of the possibility and value of friendship. And what would you be doing towards the Iraqi invaders if they were the occupying and marauding foreign army in our streets? And we need not even go beyond the third to recognize the magnitude of this catastrophe happening as we speak and as we (still) live and breathe. Supreme Court which said that Black people had no rights that white people are bound to respect.
The mujahideen became al-Qaeda subsequently as a form of "blowback" when the US abandoned them when the specific goal of the Russians leaving Afghanistan was achieved, and when more importantly, the US continued to occupy the holy land of Saudi Arabia (Mecca and Medina) with troops, prop up widely despised dictators in the Arab world, and support Israel in its policies aimed at annihilating the Palestinian people. No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars. It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps. The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged. The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities.
Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense.
The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South. Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society. In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds. Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts. Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail. In the case of the sea charts of the Mediterranean, it is still unresolved whether the earliest portolan [nautical] charts of the 13th century had a classical antecedent. Byzantine institutions, particularly as they developed in Constantinople, facilitated the flow of cartographic knowledge both to and from Western Europe and to the Arab world and beyond.
I always had a wonderful time in Copenhagen, though perhaps that time with Bjarne was pushing things a bit. In the 1980s when I co-edited Baker Street Miscellanea, he did any number of drawings for our pages, and everyone loved the humor in them.
It is what abides each time the tales have all been read again, and the book placed back on our shelf, until the time we take it down again for the next reading. Our kids walk around in their own neighborhood and get harassed for it." This is the reality of life in this country for Black people. The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature. Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned. The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C. The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports. If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas.
It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate. It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him.
Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks. Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction. Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world. If they had, one would suppose it to be a map connected with the periploi [sea itineraries]. Our sources point to only a few late glimpses of these transfers, as when Planudes took the lead in Ptolemaic research, for example. Why, I finally asked them, was there such an i??obvious affinity for English things in Denmark? Not only did they amuse in their own right, you could see behind them a highly benevolent spirit in the artist.
It is what brings us together tonight on this occasion, and will again at future times and places. Why, I finally asked them, was there such an obvious affinity for English things in Denmark?
It has become a daily fact of life that Black youth have to fear for their lives, and face the danger of summary execution by police at any time, for doing anything, or nothing. Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization. Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps. Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias. The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar. The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface. Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India. The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps. Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars.
In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries. But in order to reach an understanding of the historical processes involved in the period, we must examine the broader channels for Christian, humanistic, and scientific ideas rather than a single map, or even the whole corpus of Byzantine cartography. Aagea€™s reply was the best one imaginable, one Ia€™ve never forgotten, and have repeated many times elsewhere: England, he said, used to be a Danish country. The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs. Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?. What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate.
Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date. Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night. There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form. Viewed in this context, some of the essential cartographic impulses of the 15th century Renaissance in Italy are seen to have been already active in late Byzantine society. Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc.
They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through. He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter. The influence of these views on Chinese cartography, however, remained slight, for it revolved around the basic plan of a quantitative rectangular grid, taking no account of the curvature of the eartha€™s surface. It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement. As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities. At the same time Chinese geography was always thoroughly naturalistic, as witness the passage about rivers and mountains from the LA? Shih Chhun Chhiu.



Evolutionary psychology the new science of the mind 4th ed
Rhonda byrne the secret okulary




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